Would the evolutionary chain of things that happened on Earth be any different (is there a chance that DNA would have produced the same sorts of fauna here or is there a chance that it would have differed in some ways and made the sorts of alien creatures we see in a lot of sci-fi)?
The chances are quite slim indeed, though most of your audience would be willing to accept Earth-like life on a non-Earth planet, especially if there was no 'Earth' in the universe.
Such a small planet would have little gravity, so things like muscle and bone mass would likely be lower for equivalent Earth lifeforms. They might be less likely to evolve crawling or walking gait, and more likely to evolve loping gaits, or evolve the ability to glide.
Trees and such would likely grow taller.
Low gravity often means weakly held atmospheres, so temperatures will probably be lower, as would oxygen concentrations.
With the star it orbits being A or B in spectral class and blue in color, what color would the plant life, sky, and water be?
Water's essentially colourless, except in huge quantites, where it's blue. The surface tends to reflect the light around it, so a blue sky often means blue seas.
Plant life may move away from green and more to yellow for leaf colouration.
Assuming an Earth like atmosphere, the sky would probably still be blue, though it may perhaps be a stronger shade.
Would the planet have naturally-made caves and underground streams?
Assuming the planet contained liquid water and/or had tectonic activity, it would be very odd indeed if it didn't. Even if the planet was dead and dry, I would still expect such things to exist in any planet with a solid composition.
Would there be clouds with so little plant life and water?
Your main concern may actually be gravity; water vapour may simply float off into space, assuming it had the atmospheric pressure to remain liquid at all. Assuming these conditions allowed clouds to form, they should still appear in the same places you'd expect from Earth; cold fronts, mountain ranges etc.
Would there be tectonic activity with no oceans around?
Yes, assuming an active core.
What element(s) would produce the white color of the planet physically? Is such a color for a planet even possible?
There are a laaaaarge number of things; I reccomend just Googling stuff.
Anyway, I'm sure plants could evolve to survive in enough of them to make it plausable, and you don't even need plants really.
A lot of these questions depend more on the position and composition of your planet and quite a lot on eachother. Depending how in depth you want to be, you've got a bit of work ahead of you still, BUT overall, I don't think the idea's impossible. Your main concern is if the planet is dense enough to have the gravity to support life. If you can make it so, you're probably ok, otherwise, you'll just need to make it bigger.
I speak English and a touch of Gàidhlig.
I am creating a conworld, which I refer to as the Carrion Series
, that will contain three languages, Iriex