petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

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petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Tue 10 Sep 2013, 23:03

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petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'
Hey, petaQ, learn Klingon!

tlhIngan Hol, or the Klingon Language, is the official language of the Klingon Empire. Founded by Kahless the Unforgettable ( :tlh: qeylIS) in the Earth's 9th Century, the Klingon Empire has since become a major factor in interstellar affairs. The Klingon homeworld is Qo'noS, commonly referred to as Kronos, and is located in the Alpha Quadrant. Well known Klingons include: Kahless the Unforgettable, who united Qo'noS after his battle with Molor; Kang ( :tlh: qeng), a feared Klingon diplomat of the late 23rd and earky 24th century; and Worf ( :tlh: *worgh), a highly decorated Starfleet officer, and the first Klingon to serve aboard a Federation ship.

The Klingon language is OVS, agglutinating and considered to be "guttural". Ensign Hoshi Sato of the U.S.S. Enterprise NX-01 is quoted as saying Klingon contains "eighty polyguttural dialects constructed on an adaptive syntax" (whatever that means). Although there are other languages spoken by Klingons both on Qo'noS and throughout the empire, such as Klingonee and Klingonaase, thlIngan Hol is the language most Starfleet officers and Federation citizens are likely to encounter.

Table of Contents
:tlh: Phonology and Romanization
:tlh: Basic Nouns and Nominalizers
:tlh: Complex Nouns and Derivation
:tlh: Noun-Noun Construction
:tlh: Basic Verb Construction and Pronominal Prefixes
Last edited by Thakowsaizmu on Wed 05 Mar 2014, 18:50, edited 6 times in total.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Tue 10 Sep 2013, 23:43

Phonology and Romanization
Klingons have an oral structure that is similar enough to that of humans that all of the sounds in tlhIngan Hol are producible by humans, though the consonant inventory is somewhat dissimilar to most naturally occurring human languages.

Phonology
Editor's note: This is not the usual way I like to present phonology, but this is the traditional Klingon method.
Plosives /pʰ/ /ᵐb/ /tʰ/ /ᶯɖ/ /qʰ/ /ʔ/
Affricate /t͡ɬ/ /t͡ʃ/ /d͡ʒ/ /q͡χ/ (<- Voiceless uvular affricate)
Fricative /v/ /ʂ/ /x/ /ɣ/
Nasal /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
Trill /r/
Approximant /w/ /l/ /j/

The pronunciation above represents the prestige dialect of tlhIngan Hol. However, several Klingons, especially those encountered in space, are likely to make the following changes:
/ᵐb/ > [ b ]
/ᶯɖ/ > [ɖ]

Certain dialects, though not likely to be encountered in Federation space, make these following changes:
/ᵐb/ > [m]
/ᶯɖ/ > [ɳ]

Throughout this course the prestige dialect will be the preferred method of pronunciation, though should the learner like, they may chose to adapt one of the predominant dialectal variants so long as the student does not mix the three.

Romanization
Editor's note: Klingon romanization was devised by the Federation Scientific Research Council as a means to allow non-linguistic savvy Federation citizens a way to approximate Klingon pronunciation.
Plosives <p> <b> <t> <D> <q> <'>
Affricate <tlh> <ch> <j> <Q>
Fricative <v> <S> <H> <gh>
Nasal <m> <n> <ng>
Trill <r>
Approximant <w> <l> <y>

Vowels
Whereas the Klingon consonant inventory may seem a little strange to many humans, the vowel inventory is fairly simple, consisting of five vowels.
/u/ /ɪ/ /o/ /ɛ/ /ɑ/
<u> <I> <o> <e> <a>

Klingon makes use of the following diphthongs:
<ay> <ey> <Iy> <oy> <uy> <aw> <ew> <Iw>
/ɑj/ /ɛj/ /ɪj/ /oj/ /uj/ /ɑw/ /ɛw/ /ɪw/

No Klingon words are known to contain <ow> or <uw>.

Syllable Structure
All Klingon words are CV(C), with the exception of the following: /jʔ/ /wʔ/ and /rɣ/. Although <y> and <w> are used to create diphthongs, in Klingon linguistics these are still considered consonants.

Stress
In verbs, the stressed syllable is usually the verbal stem itself, except when a suffix ending with <'> is separated from the verb by at least one other suffix, in which case the suffix ending in <'> is also stressed. In addition, stress may shift to a suffix that is meant to be emphasized, or the wandering infix <qu'>.

In nouns, the final syllable of the base noun itself is stressed. If any syllables ending in <'> are present, the stress shifts to those syllables.

The stress in other words seems to be variable, but this is not a serious issue because most of these words are only one syllable in length. There are some words which should fall under the rules above, but do not, although using the standard rules would still be acceptable.

pIqaD
The Klingon language obviously has its own native writing system. However, due to unicode constraints this course will use the current preferred FSRC romanization. That said, below is a table of the more common pIqaD characters:
Image

Handwriting example of pIqaD:
Spoiler:
Image
Editor's note: Thanks, cntrational, for sharing this
Last edited by Thakowsaizmu on Wed 11 Sep 2013, 19:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Bagliun Edar » Wed 11 Sep 2013, 13:40

Thakowsaizmu wrote:The Klingon language is SOV, ...
Are you sure of this? Here it says:
All Klingon sentences are written and spoken Object-Verb-Subject, quite the reverse of most English sentences.
Did this change?
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Wed 11 Sep 2013, 16:37

Betsemes wrote:
Thakowsaizmu wrote:The Klingon language is SOV, ...
Are you sure of this? Here it says:
All Klingon sentences are written and spoken Object-Verb-Subject, quite the reverse of most English sentences.
Did this change?
No, it didn't change. I thought I wrote OVS, thanks for catching that for me.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Wed 11 Sep 2013, 18:46

Basic Nouns and Nominalizers
Klingon nouns come in what Klingon linguists call simple and complex. Simple nouns are generally, though not always, monosyllabic with a basic meaning. Complex nouns are nouns that are made up of more than one base noun, a base noun plus one or more modifiers, or an already complex noun with one or more modifiers.

Example Simple Nouns
be' woman, female
loD man, male
targh a Klingon targ. A boar-like spiked and ill-tempered common house pet
yaS officer
woQ power
roj peace
jol transporter beam
pa' room
tlhon nostril
'ejDo' starship (etymologically, while this may have once been a compound noun, what can be analyzed as the separate parts 'ej and Do' do not convey the meaning "star" or "ship". So though this is a bisyllabic noun, it is considered a simple noun in modern Klingon)

Verbal Nouns
In a basic sense, there is no difference between a base verb and a base noun. That is to say that 'Ip means both "an oath" (n) and "to swear, vow" (v). There are two important nominalizers, -wI' and -ghach.

-wI'
When a verb is nominalized with -wI', it becomes a type of agent noun. The -wI' suffix can be translated as "person / thing that does X" or "Xer / Xist"

Examples:
baH "to fire (a torpedo)" + -wI' becomes baHwI' "gunner"
So' "to cloak, conceal" + -wI' becomes So'wI' "cloaking device"
roj "to make peace" + -wI' becomes rojwI' "peace maker, pacifist" (likely an insult to most warriors)


-ghach
In Klingon base verbs (see verbs later) can also be treated as base nouns, as explained above. However, derived verbs cannot be treated as base nouns, and as such in order to be nominalized (with the exception of the -wI' construct above) require the suffix -ghach. As verbs have not yet been fully introduced, at this point the emphasis will be on nominalization. Nominalized verbs with -ghach convey the word's basic concept in the form of a noun instead of a verb. So, whereas lob can mean either "to obey" (v) or "obedience" (n), lobHa' can only mean "to disobey" (v) (lob + Ha' "undo"). In order to create the word "disobedience" (n) one must add the nominalizer -ghach, lobHa'ghach.

Examples:
naDHa' "to discommend" + -ghach = naDHa'ghach "discommendation"
naDqa' "to commend again" + -ghach = naDqa'ghach "re-commendation" (not "recommendation")
qawlu' "to be remembered" + -ghach = qawlu'ghach "a memory, something remembered"
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Thu 12 Sep 2013, 19:44

Complex Nouns and Derivation
Complex nouns are nouns, as stated above, that are made up of more than one base noun, a base noun plus one or more modifiers, or an already complex noun with one or more modifiers.

Derivational Order
Modifiers have a derivational order in which they interact with a noun. A Type 1 modifier, for example, comes directly after the base or otherwise unmodified noun, Type 2 would follow Type 1 and so on. If there is no Type 1, though there is a Type 2, then the Type 2 modifier would come after the unmodified noun.

Type 1: Augmentative / Diminutive
-'a', -Hom, -oy

-'a'
This modifier connotes a bigger, more important or more powerful version of the unmodified noun. It is referred to as the augmentative in Klingon.

-Hom
In contrast to -'a', -Hom is the diminutive modifier in Klingon, connoting a sense of smallness, less important or less powerful.

-oy
This is the endearment modifier. This is an infrequently used modifier, and the only known modifier to begin in a vowel (though in cases of a noun ending in a vowel, speakers are known to add <'>, changing the modifier to -'oy). The use of this modifier is to show endearment, closeness, fondness or other such ideas. It is suggested that non-natives exercise a certain amount of trepidation when using this modifier, unless the speaker is sure that it is appropriate, and that it will not invite unwanted hostility or sexual advancements.

Examples:
SuS wind, breeze SuS'a' strong wind SuSHom wisp of air
Qagh mistake Qagh'a' major mistake QaghHom minor blunder
pa' room pa''a' massive room, great hall pa'Hom tiny room, closet

puq child puqoy kid, kiddo
targh targ targhoy beloved pet targ

Type 2: Number
In Klingon, a noun can be either singular or plural depending on context, and when the sentence clearly implies plurality, a plural marker is not always necessary. For example, yaS jIH means I am an officer whereas yaS maH means we are officers, yaS being singular or plural based solely on context. There are times where not marking can cause a certain amount of ambiguity, such as in a phrase like yaS mojpu', which can either be translated as s/he became an officer or they became officers, however this rarely leads to a misunderstanding and can be made clearer either through further context or by adding a plural marker: -pu', -Du' and -mey

-pu'
The plural marker -pu' is used as a marker to pluralize beings capable of language. So one could say: be'pu' women or loDpu' men, but *targhpu' is not a valid Klingon word, because targs are not capable of speech.

-Du'
The plural marker -Du' is used to note plurality of body parts, whether the noun is capable of speech or not.
Examples:
qam foot, qamDu' feet
tlhon nostril, tlhonDu' nostrils
DeS arm, DeSDu' arms

-mey
The final plurality marker is -mey. When used with non-speaking nouns, it can be used as a general plurality marker. When used with a noun capable of speech it carries an idea of "scattered all about".
Examples:
mID colony, mIDmey colonies
yuQ planet, yuQmey planets

But:
puq child, puqpu' children, puqmey children all over the place

Technically, -mey is not to be used in proper Klingon for body parts, however, a construct like DeSmey is likely to be heard as a part of a particularly gruesome description.

Finally, some Klingon nouns are inherently plural. These inherently plural nouns are treated as grammatically singular in respect to verbs. Common examples of inherently plural nouns are:
ray' targets
cha torpedoes
chuyDaH thrusters (of a starship)

The singular counterparts are distinct words, and, in the case of inherently plural nouns vs. their singular counterpart, the words must simply be memorized.

DoS target
peng torpedo
vIj thruster

Furthermore, when it comes to the singular/inherently plural contrast, the pluralizer -mey, when used with the contrasting non-plural form, always expresses the meaning of "scattered about".

DoSmey singular targets scattered about
pengmey singular torpedoes scattered about
vIjmey singular thrusters scattered about (maybe wreckage?)

Type 3: Qualification
-qoq, -Hey, -na'
Working somewhat like some Earth languages' evidentials, qualifications express the speaker's attitude toward the noun.

-qoq
So-called. This qualifier indicates that the noun is being used in a false, or ironic fashion.

-Hey
Apparent. This qualifier expresses the idea that the speaker is pretty sure the noun is accurate, though there may be some residual doubt.

-na'
Definite. This is considered that counterpart to -Hey. It indicates there is no doubt in the speaker's miond as to the accuracy of the noun.

Examples:
Let's say that there are two Klingon warriors camping out in the wilderness. One Klingon hears a noise and believes he recognizes the sound as a wild targ. When referring to the targ, he might say targhHey the apparent targ. Upon further inspection, he discovers it is in fact a targ, he would perhaps then refer to it as targhna' definitely a targ. Now, let's say the set up is the same, but upon further inspection, the Klingon discovered it is not a targ but a small child. The second Klingon may laugh at him and she may refer to the child as targhqoq so-called targ.

Type 4: Possession / Specification
The largest category of noun suffixes, this category covers all of what are translated into English as possessive pronouns, as well as proximity.

Possessive Suffixes:
1ps: -wIj, -wI'
2ps: -lIj, -lI'
3ps: -Daj
1pp: -maj, -ma'
2pp: -raj, -ra'
3pp: -chaj

The first entry is used with any noun incapable of speech, the second is used only with nouns capable of speech. Third person, both singular and plural, do not differentiate between those capable of speech and those not.

Although considered grammatically incorrect, one can use the inanimate possessives on animate nouns. This, of course, would come off as belittling or deklingonizing (dehumanizing [:)] ).

In addition, the noun modifiers -vam and -vetlh belong to Type 4 modifiers. These modifiers relate proximity.

-vam
Commonly translated as this, -vam notes closeness to the speaker. When used with plural nouns, this is better translated as these.

-vetlh
In contrast to -vam, -vetlh that expresses distance from the speaker. When used with plural nouns, it is likely translated as those.

Examples:
tlhonraj your nostril
jolpa'vetlh that transporter room
woQwIj my power
targhchaj their targ
'ejDo'vam this starship

Type 5: Syntactic Marker
-Daq, -vo', -mo', -vaD, -'e'
Klingon makes use of five suffixes they have deemed syntactic markers. Some of these markers are similar to case systems known to be used in human languages.

-Daq locative
-vo' ablative
-mo' causal
-vaD benefactive
-'e' topic marker

The locative is used in Klingon is usually translated as to, in, at, or on. If a verb has an intrinsic notion of movement, the locative is not necessary, but not grammatically incorrect. The ablative is used like the locative, though only expresses movement away. The causal is translated as due to or because of. The benefactive is often translated as for, or intended for. Finally, the topic marker is used to mark the topic, or for emphasis. The topic marker will be covered more clearly later on, but here are examples for the other four syntactic markers:
pa'Daq in the room
pa'vo' from the room
yaSmo' due to the officer, because of the officer
yaSvaD for (the benefit of) the officer

Suffix Order
As related above, there is a clear order for suffixes in Klingon. This order is: Noun(1)(2)(3)(4)(5).

Example:
QaghHommeyHeylIjmo' Due to your apparent minor errors
Qagh-Hom-mey-Hey-lIj-mo'
Error-DIMINUTIVE-PL-apparent-2psPOSS-CAUSAL
Noun-1-2-3-4-5

be'Hompu'vetlhvaD For those girls
be'-Hom-pu'-vetlh-vaD
Female-DIMINUTIVE-PL-PROX-BENE
Noun-1-2-4-5

targhqoqlIj'e' Your so-called targ
targh-qoq-lIj-'e'
Targ-so_called-2psPOSS-topic_marker
Noun-3-4-5
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by masako » Thu 24 Oct 2013, 14:41

yIlatlh Hol!
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Shemtov » Sun 03 Nov 2013, 07:19

Thakowsaizmu wrote: Possessive Suffixes:
1ps: -wIj, -wI'

The first entry is used with any noun incapable of speech, the second is used only with nouns capable of speech.
Given that, why would <-wIj> ever be used?
Do you mean that it depends on the possessed object's ability to speak?
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Lambuzhao » Sun 03 Nov 2013, 13:06

Yup. The possessed's ability to speak (or not) determines which suffix to use.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Prinsessa » Tue 19 Nov 2013, 05:08

Thakowsaizmu wrote:However, several Klingons, especially those encountered in space, are likely to make the following changes:
Certain dialects, though not likely to be encountered in Federation space, make these following changes:
Do you actually mean, by this, that some anglophone actors cannot pronounce Klingon properly?

Also, what? No <i>, but <I>? Were they intentionally trying to make it easy to confuse the letter with <l>?
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Tue 19 Nov 2013, 17:34

Skógvur wrote:
Thakowsaizmu wrote:However, several Klingons, especially those encountered in space, are likely to make the following changes:
Certain dialects, though not likely to be encountered in Federation space, make these following changes:
Do you actually mean, by this, that some anglophone actors cannot pronounce Klingon properly?

Also, what? No <i>, but <I>? Were they intentionally trying to make it easy to confuse the letter with <l>?
Haha, I doubt it, but that's possible. I think it was more Okrand adding a little depth, or at least trying to. The Klingon spoken on the shows is generally really really bad Klingon. And often times, on some of the shows anyway, the writers completely disregard Klingon phonetics and phonotactics, so you get words like /sto.və.'kʰɔɹ/ which isn't exactly good Klingon.

As for <I> over <i>, I am confident that was just Okrand making it easier for a lot of English actors, while making it look "alien" and not alien.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Prinsessa » Tue 19 Nov 2013, 21:52

Thakowsaizmu wrote:Haha, I doubt it, but that's possible. I think it was more Okrand adding a little depth, or at least trying to. The Klingon spoken on the shows is generally really really bad Klingon. And often times, on some of the shows anyway, the writers completely disregard Klingon phonetics and phonotactics, so you get words like /sto.və.'kʰɔɹ/ which isn't exactly good Klingon.
Why do they care so little? ;_;
Thakowsaizmu wrote:As for <I> over <i>, I am confident that was just Okrand making it easier for a lot of English actors, while making it look "alien" and not alien.
Oh, well, in his defence scripts are to be written in fonts such as Courier. Can't mix them up there.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by masako » Sat 11 Jan 2014, 04:17

Are there gonna be any more lessons?
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Tue 14 Jan 2014, 04:42

masako wrote:Are there gonna be any more lessons?
Yes. I have been without stable internet for like a month now, but I will be updating this thread soon.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by masako » Tue 14 Jan 2014, 23:49

Qapla'
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Omzinesý » Mon 20 Jan 2014, 20:38

Is there any Klingon grammar in Internet? I would suppose there is.
But your thread is the best I have found.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Mon 27 Jan 2014, 19:11

The Noun-Noun construction
In Klingon, a Noun-Noun construction can be analyzed as N2 of the N1 or N1's N2. Some Noun-Noun combinations are so common as to be analyzed as compound nouns, however.
For example:
nuH pegh the weapon's secret or the secret of the weapon
nuH pegh
weapon secret

When a Noun-Noun construction is used, only the second noun can take syntactic suffixes (Type 5), though both nouns can take the other four types of suffixes.

Examples:
nuHvam pegh this weapon's secret
nuH-vam pegh
weapon-this_4 secret

jaghpu' yuQmeyDaq at/to the enemies' planets
jagh-pu' yuQ-mey-Daq
enemy-PL_2 planet-PL_2-LOC_5

vavnI'lI' QuchHommo' Because of your grandfather's tiny forehead
vavnI'-lI' Quch-Hom-mo'
grandfather-2psPOSS_4 forehead-dimminutive_2-because_5

English prepositional phrases are also constructed by the noun-noun construct in Klingon.

Examples:
nagh DungDaq above the rock
nagh Dung-Daq
rock area_above-LOC_5

quSlIj retlhDaq Beside your chair
quS-lIj retlh-Daq
chair-2psPOSS_4 beside-LOC_5
Last edited by Thakowsaizmu on Thu 30 Jan 2014, 20:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by eldin raigmore » Thu 30 Jan 2014, 20:08

Thakowsaizmu wrote:The Noun-Noun construction
In Klingon, a Noun-Noun construction can be analyzed as N2 of the N1 or N1's N2. Some Noun-Noun combinations are so common as to be analyzed as compound nouns, however.
For example:
nuH pegh the weapon's secret or the secret of the weapon
nuH pegh
weapon secret

When a Noun-Noun construction is used, only the second noun can take syntactic suffixes (Type 5), though both nouns can take the other four types of suffixes.

Examples:
nuHvam pegh this weapon's secter
nuH-vam pegh
weapon-this_4 secret

jaghpu' yuQmeyDaq at/to the enemies' planets
jagh-pu' yuQ-mey-Daq
enemy-PL_2 planet-PL_2-LOC_5

vavnI'lI' QuchHommo' Because of your grandfather's tiny forehead
vavnI'-lI' Quch-Hom-mo'
grandfather-2psPOSS_4 forehead-dimminutive_2-because_5

English prepositional phrases are also constructed by the noun-noun construct in Klingon.

Examples:
nagh DungDaq above the rock
nagh Dung-Daq
rock area_above-LOC_5

quSlIj retlhDaq Beside your chair
quS-lIj retlh-Daq
chair-2psPOSS_4 beside-LOC_5

1. Thanks [:)] for pointing this out to me, Thakowsaizmu!

2. I really think it's a cool [B)] innovation in tlHiNaan tlhIngan grammar.

3. Has it been formally (or informally but explicitly) accepted or recognized by either the Klingon Language Institute or Marc Okrand?

4. I assume you meant
nuHvam pegh this weapon's secret
when you wrote:When a Noun-Noun construction is used, only the second noun can take syntactic suffixes (Type 5), though both nouns can take the other four types of suffixes.
Examples:
nuHvam pegh this weapon's secter
nuH-vam pegh
weapon-this_4 secret
But occasionally when I've assumed I knew what someone really meant I've been wrong, so I thought I'd ask, just in case.
Edit: Nuts! Every time I wrote tlHiNaan I should have written tlhIngan !
Last edited by eldin raigmore on Tue 04 Feb 2014, 15:37, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by Thakowsaizmu » Thu 30 Jan 2014, 20:53

Thanks for pointing out the typo. As for:
3. Has it been formally (or informally but explicitly) accepted or recognized by either the Klingon Language Institute or Marc Okrand?
I'm actually using Okrand's Klingon Dictionary for the grammar, as well as the vocab (save for the parts I pointed out earlier), so it should all be accepted, seeing as he wrote it, hehe
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eldin raigmore
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Re: petaQ, tlhIngan Hol yIghojqu'

Post by eldin raigmore » Thu 30 Jan 2014, 23:23

Thakowsaizmu wrote:As for:
me wrote:3. Has it been formally (or informally but explicitly) accepted or recognized by either the Klingon Language Institute or Marc Okrand?
I'm actually using Okrand's Klingon Dictionary for the grammar, as well as the vocab (save for the parts I pointed out earlier), so it should all be accepted, seeing as he wrote it, hehe
Hmm. [:S]
Then, please pardon my density [:$] , but what was the part you updated?
I guess it's earlier in the thread, but I didn't find it yet.

(The glasses smilie [B)] isn't for "I guess I must be blind"; if it were, I'd used it now.)
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