All right. Let me see if I got that.
Phones are how the mouth is shaped for the sound.
Phonetics is how the sound comes across, like voiced/unvoiced, aspirated/unaspirated, etc.
So if I had a final devoicing rule, I would say "Badog is pronounced [badok]" not "Badog is pronounced /badok/"
Phones are speech sounds, like [kʰ], [ð], [æ], [ʉ], [ǂʰ], [ʤ] etc. Phonetics is the study of speech sounds.
Phonemes are those speech sounds that are contrastive in a given languages. Phonology is the study of phonemes.
[p] and [pʰ] are different phones. Both [p] and [pʰ] occur in English. But - in English - they do not contrast, they are not separate phonemes
. You can't have two words, that are identical in all respect, except that one word had a [p] whole the other had a [pʰ]. In English, there are rules for when to use [p] and when to use [pʰ]. Compare the words pin
. Most English dialects pronounce them like [pʰɪn] and [spɪn] (or something close thereto). Look also at pair of words like pan and span, can and scan, tone and stone [pʰæn] vs [spæn], [kʰæn] vs [skæn], [tʰəʊn] vs [stəʊn]. In English, plosives are aspirated in syllable onset, except when there is a preceding [s]. You can't have a words like [spʰɪn] or [pɪn] in English.
In a language where [pʰ] and [p] were different phonemes - /pʰ/ and /p/ - there could be minimal pairs like /pʰɪn/ and /pɪn/ - that were identical in every respect, except that the one had an aspirated stop, and the other had an unaspirated stop.
Another way to express the idea is to say that two phones or speech sound belongs to the same phoneme in a given language, if they, from that languages point of view, may be regarded as varieties of the same sound. Thus we could say, that [pʰ] and [p] are not really different sounds in English, but rather varieties of the same sound. In other languages, [pʰ] and [p] may be regarded as different sounds. In linguistic terminology, we say that the two are different phonemes - /pʰ/ and /p/. In English, we can also see that /p/ and /b/ are "different sound" - or in linguistic terminology - different phonemes. Yet in other languages, the two may be more like varieties of the same sound - [p] and [b].