With that out of the way, here is a summary of what I have come up with so far:
I kept most of the consonants I originally had, with very little changes. The main difference with v1 is the vowels.
/m m̥ n n̥/ <m mh n nh>
/p pʰ pʼ t tʰ tʼ k kʰ kʼ/ <p ph p' t th t' k kh k'>
/f fʰ fʼ s sʰ sʼ ʃ ʃʰ ʃʼ/ <f fh f' s sh s' c ch c'>
/l l̥ r r̥/ <l lh r rh>
/w ʍ/ <w wh>
Staying true to the original, consonants contrast in two ways: nasals, approximants and trills contrast between voiced and devoiced; plosives and fricatives (with the exception of /h/) can be plain, aspirated or ejective.
- /x/ is an allophone of /h/ when word final, or when preceding a plosive.
- /ʃ/, and its contrasts, are in free variation with /ʂ/.
- /ʍ/ can also be realised as /xʷ/
- There is a gradation of importance in contrast. Ejective > aspirated > plain. This will be important later.
The K'anerhtónian language has 5 pairs of vowels. Each pair consists of an unrounded vowel, and its rounded counterpart.
/ɯ u/ <u ú>
/ɪ ʏ/ <i í>
/ɤ o/ <o ó>
/ɛ œ/ <e é>
/ɑ ɒ/ <a á>
- Dipthongs are not allowed. If two vowels follow each other, they will be pronounced as though they were part of separate syllables.
- Unrounded vowels can be pronounced as /ə/ when word final.
- Syllable structure is (C)V(C).
- A plosive, when word final, automatically becomes plain. The contrast reappears if a suffix is added.
E.G.: Het' is pronounced /hɛt/, but het'ec is pronounced /hɛtʼɛʃ/
- A nasal cannot follow or precede a different nasal. The same holds true for fricatives and approximants.
E.G.: /mn/ /fʰs/ /l̥w/ are not possible clusters.
- If a nasal, trill or approximant precedes or follows a plosive, it is automatically devoiced.
E.G.: Kant will be pronounced /kɑn̥t/. Plarta is pronounced /pl̥ɑr̥tə/.
- When a consonant follows or precedes the same consonant, but with a different contrast, it is geminated, and the stronger contrast is applied.
E.G.: <php'> will be pronounced /pːʼ/. <shs> will be pronounced /sːʼ/.
- When two plosives are in a cluster, only the last one is pronounced. The contrast of the preceding consonant does not matter.
E.G.: <phk'> is pronounced /kʼ/. <t'p> is pronounced /p/.
Word order is VSO. The verbal construction must begin the sentence; not even an adverb can precede it. More about verbs in the conjugation section.
Nouns may be of two genders: human, and non-human. This influences the choice in pronouns, as well as which suffix to use for the genitive case.
Talking about cases, here is a list of all 16 noun cases used in K'anerhtónian:
- Oblique: combination of accusative and dative; object of a verb.
- Genitive: marks possession. The suffix is applied on the possessor.
>> -rh for non-human possessers; -whí for human possessors.
- Benefactive: for sb/sth; to sb/sth. Positive connotation.
- Comitative: in the presence of sb or sth.
- Instrumental: with the help of sb; using sth.
- Privative: without, in the absence of sb or sth.
- Intensive: used to aggrandise sth or sb, to express the importance of sth or sb. Used as an vocative equivalent when addressing or mentioning people of higher social rank.
- Attenuative: used to diminish sb or sth. It is an insulting way to denigrate sb.
- Vocative: used when addressing someone of similar or lower social rank.
- Inessive: sth or sb is inside sth or sb.
- Pertingent: expresses physical contact with sth or sb, or close proximity with sth or sb.
- Adessive: sth or sb is outside sth or sb.
- Ablative: sth or sb is moving away, or out of sth or sb.
>> - il
- Allative: sth or sb is moving towards, or into sth or sb.
- Perlative: sth or sb is moving through, or along sth or sb.
Adjectives follow the noun that they qualify or quantify. They agree in gender, number and case.
- Human is unmarked. Non-human requires the suffix -a.
- Plural, like nouns, is marked with -h and the rounding of the preceding vowel.
- If the intensive or attenuative is applied to the adjective, it must also be applied to the noun, even if the suffix only applies semantically to the adjective.
As stated earlier, the verb construction is the very first thing that begins a sentence, and nothing else can take its place.
Verbs inflect in mood, tense and aspect. They also take the mark of their respective subject, and potential object. Verbs construct as such:
object- mood- VERB -tense -aspect -subject
The object prefix, and the subject suffix also serve the equivalent of pronouns, which are not used in K'anerhtónian. Nevertheless, even if their referents are expressed later in the clause, the affixes must still be attached to the verb, as an inherent part of the structure. The "person affixes" that refer to objects are the same affixes used for objects, albeit to the oblique case.
Here are the person affixes:
And here is a table summing up the conjugation of K'anerhtónian verbs:
- The imperative, marked with a prefix, still requires the person affixes.
- The speculative/inferential is used when talking about events that were not witnessed first-hand. It is also the de facto irrealis mood to be used when talking about hypothetical situations, in combination with the conditional.
- The non-present tense, as the name suggests, is used when mentioning actions that are not taking place now (in a broad sense). Past actions, as well as actions that will take place in the future, are non-present, and require the suffix.
- The continuous aspect refers to an action that takes place over a prolonged period of time.
- The habitual aspect refers to an action that repeats itself in time.
- The inceptive marks the beginning of an action. Following the same logic, the terminative marks the end of an action.
- The intensive and attenuative are also used with verbs, and respectively aggrandise or diminish a verb.
- Several aspect suffixes can follow one another, so long as they are not contradictory. They may be added in any order, though the most important one (as far as semantics go) is placed last.