Lajrán hwoz mónáz, or Lajrán for short, it is the religious language of the Món culture as well as the official writen one. It is the mother language of all the Hwoz Món languages.
I wanted to make a sort of mother language similar to Latin. I was inspired by Latin, germanic and Catalan in many ways. it is purposely done in an IE style and many words are taken from PIE as well as based off IE languages (likes the ones previously mentioned). Sorry if I have explained some things badly, my nomenclature is pretty bad so please do correct my mistakes.
This is my second serious conlang so I know there is much room for improvement.PhoneticsConsonants
Note : /IPA letters / <transcribed (for writing it out)>Plosives
: /p, b, t, d, k, g/ < p, b, t, d, k, g >Voiced Aspirated Plosives
: / bʰ, dʰ, gʰ/ <bh, dh, gh>Fricatives
: /s, z, h/ <s, z, h>Approximants
: /j, w/ <j, w>Liquids
: /l, r/ <l, r>Nasals
: /m, n, ŋ/ <m, n, ng>
It has very basic sounds and few fricatives.Allowed clusters:double-
bz, dz, gz
bm, dn, gn, mn, rn, ln, wn, jn, sn, hn
pr, tr, kr, lr, mr, wr, jr, sr, hr
pw, tw, kw, rw, jw, sw, hw
pj, tj, kj, rj, lj, si, nj, hjtriple
trw, krw, rnw
twn, kwn, rwn
hnw, pzw, tzw, kzw
Again, very basic.Long
: /a:, e:, i:, o:, u:/ <á, é, í, ó, ú>Short
: /a, e, i, o ,u/ <a, e, i, o, u>Diphtongs
: /e:ʊ, o:ʊ/ <ê, ô>Short
: /aɪ, aʊ/ <ä, â>
Any other adjacent vowels get separated by an /h/
Word structure (does not apply to composite words):
C- single consonant or double cluster
T- triple cluster
V- short vowel
W- long vowel
U- any vowel
(C)UC/T(V) [T can only exist if there is V final]
There are some exceptions with certain religious words and verbs.Grammar
As it is inflected word order can change, but the excepted order is SVO.Nouns
Nouns in Lajrán are declined, there are 7 cases.Nominative
: for subject or attribute. Sam eats apples.Accusative
: for direct object (or verbal object) used too for verbal objects. Sam eats apples
: Nominal Object, possesion. Apples of the tree
: for the tool used in an action. Hit the hobo with a hammer
: for showing company. I went to town with Roger
: for place, origin. I am at home.Dative
: For indirect object and agent; Sometimes can be used as an Interjection. I gave it to him
. It was given to him by me.
These five cases are declined as follows (there are 2 declension, one for consonant final and one for vowel final):Kél [fish], trá [sea]Consonant Final
Verbs are inflected the following way:
[personal pronoun] [verbal morpheme] VERB
Personal pronouns are rarely used, as the verb already carries that information. But they are used in some situations: imperative, emphasis on the person, extremely formal speech. They are also used when gender needs to be implied.
Morphemes are used when the verb does the action onto something, the morpheme shows who.
Verbs in Lajrán
possess two forms: the punctual and the continual.
The punctual (v1) is used for simple and perfective aspects. It is the common infinitive.
The continual (v2) is used for continuous and imperfective verb forms as well as the gerund and participle.
Verbs are shown as [v1, v2]
Tense and aspect are combined; there are 11 different tense/aspect conjugations, they are:Present simple
: like in English. Carries less weight. Conjugated with :> v1Present continuous
: an action that is currently taking place. Conjugated with :> v2Present perfect
: an action that has just been completed; though in this language it also emphasizes the action giving it more intensity. Conjugated with :> v1Imperfective
: for an action in the general past, no completion. Conjugated with :> v2Past simple
: a punctual occurrence in the past, but with no said completion. Conjugated with :> v1Past continuous
: an action that was taking place in the past, but the ending is not stated. Conjugated with :> v2Past Perfect
: a process that took place in the past and has ended. Conjugated with :> v1Past Pluperfect
. In Lajrán it is used for a process that started in the past but ended right at the present. Conjugated with :> v1Future Simple
: an action that will happen at a certain moment in the future. Conjugated with :> v1Future Continuous
: an action that will be occurring in the future. Conjugated with :> v2Future Perfect
: a process that will have been completed in the future. Conjugated with :> v1Future Pluperfect
: an action that will be occurring and will have ended at a specific moment in the futre. Conjugated with :> v2
‘To be’ [éd,do] is the only irregular verb in Lajrán and thus must be memorized completely.
Tense aspect conjugation is helped by the auxiliary verbs ‘ib/bha [to exist]’ and ‘äd/dhä [to finish]’, both of which are obsolete in this current language, but they do make a resurgence in later langs.
The regular verb 'To eat' [ég, góla]
To complete the verb conjugation one must add the person finals (there are 3 persons with their plural counterparts):
Thus ‘I eat’ would be:
‘They will be eating’:
´You all were eating till now’
Érib égadhäbazedhiOther verbal forms:Gerund
: v2Passive Voice
: to be + v2 + [dative case] (SOV)
Ex: ngéréwin édabaz góla.
‘he/she was eaten by the spears’, it means that he/she was killed by the spear.Moods
There are many more moods to Lajrán, the above was all indicative. The other moods are based around an auxiliary verb+ verb (in one form or another) and a different word order.Indicative
: V (SVO)Subjunctive
: to let + v2 (SOV)
Used for theoretic or dubitative situations. Maybe..., possibly....Conditional
: gaur (if) + V -> húrn (then) + V (SVO)
This order is used if you want to say: if A then B. As A conditions B. But if the order is ‘I will B if A’, then the order would be reversed to: húrn + V -> gaur + V. ex: I may go to the beach if it is sunny. The other being, ‘If it is sunny, I will go to the beach’.
Ex. Gaur bhórem lám hwê dhézarnahä, húrn ákêhem lám hêrnáz.If you want the way towards peace, then you will go the way of war.Húrn âdaron tráhä, gaur hwol nêdn dobaz irnúk!I would go to the sea, if it was not ice!Imperative
: personal pronoun + v2 – last syllable. Ex: émn golem [you eat!]Jussive
: to wish + personal pronoun + V1 (VSO)
Jussive is used as an ultra-polite and formal imperative.Pronouns and other thingsPersonal pronouns:
There are 8 personal pronouns, 1 for each of the six persons which are all neutral and 2 more for the 3rd person singular to suggest gender.Regular personal pronouns
:Gendered 3rd person singular pronouns
Gender is normally not an important thing; it is only used when referring to humans or domesticated animals.Possessive pronouns
(follow a regular declension):
gún /wón/élj (n./m./f.)
Is used for something in very close proximity (in one’s hand, one’s surroundings)That
For something further away; opposed to this; out of sight.Further that
If this or that have already been mentioned then it is used for the 3rd party. When talking of abstract or speculatory terms. The singular is also used to refer to refer to something that has been mentioned before; it has almost become a pronoun to replace the 3rd person.
Opposed to here. Used for unseen places. A place a short way off that is visible.
Here, there and yonderYonder
For places right out of sight that is covered by an obstacle. A direction. A specific place far away (like a city)
Here, there and yonderRelative pronoun
There are 2, one for persons and animals and one for things.Persons
Yes/no question contruction: VSO + jê
Answered with äitan/nêdn.Âdar kél míláz jê?Nêdn, hwol âdar tráz.Is the fish from the river?
No, it is from the sea.
who? Phas Phas ér nóbmä?
Twakrúln ér lon.Who is in the house?
The holy man is there.Adjectives
They follow the same declension rules as nouns and normally are positioned in front of the noun.
The verb 'to be' is not necessary when attributing nouns.Suffixes
“j-“ combined with these suffixes form the adjective that the suffix equals to.
Ex. ngér [ér] inásupre snárêThe spear is longer than the sword.
Ex. hêrna [ér] jeghâ doghúnwar is equal to deathIntensifiers
double last syllable of non-declined form.
hab "good" -> habab
Ex. hwin hágat [ér] kêbhadasóren/kêbhabha!That horse is really fast!Weakening
:> puppyAkin to
Ex. ebhón mílusweRivery hair/ hair like a river
That's all I have till now. I want to work on common phrases and idioms. As well as on the culture itself. I know it's pretty nooby and could need much improvement. As always, I may have mixed up nomenclatures as I always do.
One phonetactics: they will be developed for the dialects of the lang. This would be the normative version in my conworld as it was normally inposed as the governmental language during the Món history.