Well, here's the nominal morphology as promised. I'll put verbal morphology and derivational morphology in separate posts.
A Kantaranyan noun consists of a stem, which may stand alone (in which case it denotes a singular noun), plus prefixes and suffixes, according to the following template:
Quantifier prefix - determiner/possessive prefix - stem - plural suffix - possessive plural suffix - postpositional suffix
The prefixes are as follow:
Ma- (no, none, not any), e.g. maoroner (none of the fish), maneni (no child)
Su- (all, every), e.g. suyehi (every man), suome (all of us)
In- (any), e.g. inkan (any tree), inkiyehir (any of those men)
Ha- (some), e.g. haamar (some people)
Ku- (many), e.g. kutarier (many birds), kumar (many of them)
Hi- (few), e.g. himelir (a few pots)
Ya- (which one), e.g. yalumakoyti (in which one of your houses?)
Note that ku- and hi- always occur with the plural form of the noun, while the others may occur with both singular and plural nouns.
Ya- (what, which)
The difference between si- and ki-/nu- is based on distance: si- is used to refer to something near to the speaker and listener, and ki- and nu- to things that are further away. The difference between ki- and nu- is that ki- refers to things that are visible, while nu- refers to things that are out of sight.
Ni- (1st person singular)
O- (1st person plural inclusive)
Xi- (1st person plural exclusive)
Lu- (2nd person)
Mi- (3rd person animate)
A- (3rd person inanimate)
Note that possessive and determiner prefixes may not occur within the same word.
The plural suffix is -r. If the stem of the noun ends a consonant, then the final consonant is deleted when -r is added (compare xuka (pig) vs. xukar (pigs) and amah (person) vs. amar (people). Note also that -r becomes -y before a following coronal consonant or y (cf. kar (trees) vs. kayti (in the trees)), and -v before a labial consonant (cf. makor (houses) vs. mimakovmi (their houses)).
Possessive plural suffix:
The possessive plural suffix is -mi. It is used with possessed nouns to denote that the possessor
is plural. Thus, for example, mimurah
means 'his/her cat', while mimurapmi
means 'their cat'. It is obligatory even when the possessive prefix itself always denotes a plural possessor (thus, 'our (inclusive) house' is omakomi
, not *omako
, for example).
There are four postpositional suffixes used to denote general spatial or temporal relationships. These are:
-ti (static location: 'in', 'at', 'on')
-ka (destination: 'to', 'towards', 'until')
-na (point of origin: 'from', 'since')
-nu (something moved past, across or through)
In addition, the instrumental suffix -hi also appears in this slot.
Relational nouns are often used instead, however, as these give more specific information. For example, phrases like mako aakanti
(in the house), mako alenti
(by the house, near to the house) and mako akemiti
(in front of the house) are often preferred to simply makoti
, which is more vague.
It is important to note that all of the affixing processes described above occur before
stress assignment and allophony (with the exception of the variation between -r, -y and -v in the plural suffix, which reflect different allophones.
Pronouns in Kantaranyan have the much the same morphological properties as other nouns, with the exception that they cannot take determiner prefixes and possessive affixes, and that the personal pronouns do not take the plural suffix, as they are already inherently singular or plural. The main pronouns are as follow:
Neh (1st person singular)
Lueh (2nd person singular)
Emeh (3rd person singular animate)
Ahi (3rd person singular inanimate)
Ome (1st person plural inclusive)
Xine (1st person plural exclusive)
Roa (2nd person plural)
Mar (3rd person plural animate)
Yer (3rd person plural inanimate)
Kieh (that [in sight])
Nueh (that [out of sight])
The interrogative pronoun is yeh
, meaning 'what?' or 'who?'.
Further pronouns may be formed by prefixing the quantifier prefixes to the base -neh. (E.g. maneh 'nothing', suneh 'everything', yaneh 'which one?' and so on.)
Edit: Completely forgot about the instrumental suffix when I typed this up. I've added it to the 'postpositional suffixes' section.