Scurdic - third version (diachronic Indo-European)

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Scurdic - third version (diachronic Indo-European)

Post by Artaxes » Thu 21 Feb 2013, 14:28

In this time I am making this diachronic Indo-European conlang. Its native name is Skurðuiškas [skʊrðyːʃkas].
This is the third version of my project, which aims to create a naturalistic language with a beautiful sounding and an extensive, inflectional grammar.
In this post I describe phonology. In later posts I give the main sound changes and new concepts of grammar.

Phonology:

Vowels:

Short:

[a ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ œ ʏ] /a e i o u oe ue/

Long:

[aː eː ɛː iː oː ɔː uː ɶː øː yː] /á é ai í ó au ú ao eu ui/

Diphthongs:

Short:

[aɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ aʊ̯ ɛʊ̯ ɔʊ̯] /ai~ại ei~ẹi oi~ọi au~ạu eu~ẹu ou~ọu/

Long:

[aːɪ̯ ɛːɪ̯ eːɪ̯ ɔːɪ̯ oːɪ̯ aːʊ̯ ɛːʊ̯ eːʊ̯ ɔːʊ̯ oːʊ̯] /ái aii éi aui ói áu aiu éu auu óu/

Pseudo-diphthongic vowel clusters:

[aiː aeː aɛː auː aoː aɔː] /aí aé aai aú aó aau/

[ɛiː ɛuː ɛoː ɛɔː œiː œuː] /aii eú eó eau oeí oeú/

[ɔiː ɔaː ɔɛː ɔeː ɔuː] /oí oá oai oé oú/

[ʏøː] /ueu/

[ʊaː ʊɛː ʊeː ʊiː ʊɔː ʊoː] /uá uai ué uí uau uó/

Consonants:

[p t t͡s c k] /p t ts c k/
[b d d͡z ɟ g] /b d dz j g/
[f θ s ʃ ç x h] /f þ s š ç ḫ h/
[v ð z ʒ ʝ ɣ] /v ð z ž y x/
[m n (ŋ ɲ)] /m n/
[l r] /l r/
[j w ʍ] /y w ƕ/
Last edited by Artaxes on Tue 02 Apr 2013, 17:46, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Thu 21 Feb 2013, 16:09

The Grand Master Plan:

tḱ _V → tʲs → t͡s
tḱ _C → tʲ → t͡s

tǵ _V → tʲs → t͡s
tǵ _C → tʲ → t͡s

dḱ _V → tʲs → t͡s
dḱ _C → tʲ → t͡s

dǵʰ _V → tʰʲs → s
dǵʰ _C → tʰʲ →

dʰǵʰ _V → tʰʲtʰ → sθ → θ
dʰǵʰ _C → tʰʲ → s

dʰǵ _V → tʰʲtʰ → sθ → θ
dʰǵ _C → tʰʲ → s

tkʷ _V → pt
tkʷ _C → p

tgʷ _V → pt
tgʷ _C → p

dkʷ _V → pt
dkʷ _C → p

dgʷʰ #_V → kʷʰt → ʍt
dgʷʰ V_V → kʷʰt → ʍt
dgʷʰ _C → kʷʰ → ʍ

dʰgʷʰ _V → kʷʰtʰ → ʍθ
dʰgʷʰ _C → kʷʰ → ʍ

dʰgʷ _V → kʷʰtʰ → ʍθ
dʰgʷ _C → kʷʰ → ʍ

tk _V → ks → kʃ → xʃ
tk _C → k

dg _V → gz → dz → d͡z
dg _C → g

dt V_V → t͡sts → st
dt _C → t͡st → st

p → p
t → t
k → k
kʷ → p
ḱ → tʲ → t͡s

b → b → v
bʰ → pʰ → f
d → d
dʰ → tʰ → θ
g → g
gʰ → kʰ → x
gʷ → gʷ → b
gʷʰ → kʷʰ → ʍ
ǵ → dʲ → d͡z
ǵʰ → tʰʲ → s

s → s/ʃ/x → s/ʃ/h/z

ps → fs
ts → ːs/s
ks → xs
t͡ss → ss/s

bs → ps
ds → ːs/s
gs → ks
d͡zs → t͡s

sr → sr/xr → ʃn/ɪ̯r
sl → sl/xl → ʃl/ɪ̯l
sm → sm/xm → ʃm/ɪ̯m
sn → sn/xn → ʃn/ɪ̯n

gʰr → kʰr → xr → xr/r
gʰl → kʰl → xl → xl/l
gʰm → kʰm → xm → xm/m
gʰn → kʰn → xn → xn/n

r → r
l → l
m → m/n → m/n/ŋ
n → n/m → n/m/ŋ

rj V_V → ɪ̯r
lj V_V → ɪ̯l
mj V_V → ɪ̯m
nj V_V → ɪ̯n

rw V_V → ʊ̯r
lw V_V → ʊ̯l
mw V_V → ʊ̯m
nw V_V → ʊ̯n

rs → rx → rʰ/rr → r/rr
ls → lx → lʰ/ll → l/ll
mx → mx → mʰ → m/mm
nx → nx → nʰ → n/nn

sθr → sr → ʃr
str → sr → ʃr
st͡sr → str → sr
zdr → zr → ʒr
zd͡zr → zdr → zr

sθl → sl → ʃl
stl → sl → ʃl
st͡sl → stl → sl
zdl → zl → ʒl
zd͡zl → zdl → zl

sθm → sm → ʃm
stm → sm → ʃm
st͡sm → stm → sm
zdm → zm → ʒm
zd͡zm → zdm → zm

sθn → sn → ʃn
stn → sn → ʃn
st͡sn → stn → sn
zdn → zn → ʒn
zd͡zn → zdn → zn

θr → hr
tr → θr
t͡sr → tr
dr → ðr → ðr/r
d͡zr → dr

θl → hl
tl → θl
t͡sl → tl
dl → ðl → ðl/l
d͡zl → dl → gl

θm → hm
tm → θm
t͡sm → tm
dm → ðm → ðm/m
d͡zm → dm → gm

θn → hn
tn → θn
t͡sn → tn
dn → ðn → ðn/n
d͡zn → dn → gn

st͡s V_V → ss → t͡s
st͡s [CV]_V → st
st͡s _[C#] → st

zd͡z V_V → zz → d͡z
zd͡z [CV]_V → zd
zd͡z _[C#] → zd

rθ → rh/r
rt → rθ
rt͡s → rs
rd → rð
rd͡z → rz

w → w
j → j

sw → xw → hw → ʍ
sj → xj → hj → ʃ/j

jw → ɥ/ɥɥ → j/jj
wj → jw

jk → c
jg → ɟ
jx → ç

kj → c
k _F → c
gj → ɟ
g _F → ɟ
xj → ç
x _F → ç

skj → çc → çc/cc
sk _F → çc → çc/cc
zgj → ʝɟ → ʝɟ/ɟɟ
zg _F → ʝɟ → ʝɟ/ɟɟ
sxj → ç/çç
sx _F → ç/çç

sx → ʃ

zg → ɣ

r̩ → ər → ar/or/er
l̩ → əl → al/ol/el
m̩ → ə̃ → a/o/e
n̩ → ə̃ → a/o/e

r̩r → ər → ar/or/er
l̩l → əl → al/ol/el
m̩m → əm → am/om/em
n̩n → ən → an/on/en

r̩h₁ → əːr → ār/ēr/ōr
r̩h₂ → əːr → ār/ēr/ōr
r̩h₃ → əːr → ār/ēr/ōr

l̩h₁ → əːl → āl/ēl/ōl
l̩h₂ → əːl → āl/ēl/ōl
l̩h₃ → əːl → āl/ēl/ōl

m̩h₁ → əːm → ām/ēm/ōm
m̩h₂ → əːm → ām/ēm/ōm
m̩h₃ → əːm → ām/ēm/ōm

n̩h₁ → əːn → ān/ēn/ōn
n̩h₂ → əːn → ān/ēn/ōn
n̩h₃ → əːn → ān/ēn/ōn

h₁ C_C → e
h₂ C_C → a
h₃ C_C → o

h₁ #_C → e
h₂ #_C → a
h₃ #_C → o

h₁ C_# → e
h₂ C_# → a
h₃ C_# → o

a → ɒ → ɔ
ā → aː
e → e → ɪ
ē → æː → aː
i → ɪ → ɛ
ī → iː
o → o → ʌ → a
ō → oː
u → ʊ
ū → uː

ai → ɒɪ → ɛː
āi → aːɪ → aeː
ei → eɪ → iː
ēi → æːɪ → ɛeː → jeː
oi → oɪ → yː
ōi → oːɪ → ʊeː → ɔeː

au → ɒʊ → ɔː
āu → aːʊ → aoː
eu → eʊ → øː
ēu → æːʊ → ɛoː
ou → oʊ → uː
ōu → oːʊ → ʊoː

ɪ → j C_
iː → ɪj C_

aeːɪ̯ → ɛːɪ̯
jeːɪ̯ → eːɪ̯
ɔeːɪ̯ → øːɪ̯

aoːɪ̯ → ɔːɪ̯
ɛoːɪ̯ → øːɪ̯
ʊoːɪ̯ → oːɪ̯

aeːʊ̯ → ɛːʊ̯
jeːʊ̯ → eːʊ̯
ɔeːʊ̯ → øːʊ

aoːʊ̯ → ɔːʊ̯
ɛoːʊ̯ → øːʊ̯
ʊoːʊ̯ → oːʊ̯

ʊ → ʏ _[rlmnŋj]F
uː → yː _[rlmnŋj]F
ɔ → œ _[rlmnŋj]F
ɔː → øː _[rlmnŋj]F
oː → øː _[rlmnŋj]̄F

a → ɛ _[rlmnŋ]
aː → ɛː _[rlmnŋ]
ɛ → ɪ _[rlmnŋ]
ɛː → eː _[rlmnŋ]
eː → iː _[rlmnŋ]
œ → ʏ _[rlmnŋ]
øː → yː _[rlmnŋ]
ɔ → ʊ _[rlmnŋ]
ɔː → oː _[rlmnŋ]
oː → uː _[rlmnŋ]

iːɪ̯ → eːɪ̯
ɪɪ̯ → iː

uːɪ̯ → oːɪ̯
ʊɪ̯ → yː

uːʊ̯ → oːʊ̯
ʊʊ̯ → uː

yːj → uːj
øːj → oːj

yːɪ̯ → uːɪ̯
øːɪ̯ → oːɪ̯

yːw → yːw
øːw → øːw

yːʊ̯ → juː
iːʊ̯ → juː
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Click » Thu 21 Feb 2013, 19:12

The orthography is not put between slashes, but between <> or ‹›. [;)]
The Grand Master Plan is the sound changes, right?
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Thu 21 Feb 2013, 20:55

Conjugation of the verb furití - "to carry" from *bʰer-

Tenses:

feriþéme ← bʰeredʰeh₁mi - [past perfective]
feraíme ← bʰereh₁ h₁esmi - [past imperfective]
feró ← bʰeroh₂ - [present]
feriyó ← bʰerh₁sioh₂ - [future imperfective]
feriþiyó ← bʰeredʰh₁sioh₂ - [future perfective]

Forms:

feritsó ← bʰeresḱoh₂ - [inchoative-inceptive]
fureó ← bʰoreh₂ioh₂ - [causative]
fernéme ← bʰerneh₁mi - [habitual-iterative]
oelpiyó ← wl̩kʷeioh₂ - ("I look as angry wolf.") [denominal verb]

Participles:

ferilas ← bʰerelos - [active past perfective] (he who finished the work/action)
feriwas ← bʰerewos - [active past imperfective] (he who not finished the work/action)
feritas ← bʰern̩tos - [active present] (he who is working in the same time with speaker saying or his work/action is still continued)
feristas ← bʰerh₁stos - [active future imperfective] (he who will worked in a future time and/or effects of his work are doubtful)
feriþistas ← bʰeredʰh₁stos - [active future perfective] (he who will finished work in a future with definite effects; also may mean a very short and momentaneous action in future)

ferrátas ← bʰerdʰeh₁tos [passive past perfective]
iferainas ← h₁e bʰeremnos [passive past imperfective]
ferainas ← bʰeremnos [passive present]
feriyúnas ← bʰerh₁somnos [passive future imperfective]
feriþiyúnas ← bʰeredʰh₁somnos [passive future perfective]

feremptas ← bʰerenkʷtos [active potentional] (he who can/is able to carry)
ferempnas ← bʰerenkʷmnos [passive potentional] (he who can/is able to be carried)

ferenkas ← bʰerenkʷos [reputative; only passive] (the suffix is loanword from my other IE conlang)
/Meaning of reputative participle was given in post below./

Gerunds:

Gerunds are deverbal action/process nouns, but also may have infinitival functions.

furidátí ← bʰoredeh₁tei [perfective]
furití ← bʰorn̩tei [imperfective] (lexical form)

Supinum:

Supinum is the other deverbal noun and mean goal of a subject.

furiþátún ← bʰoredʰeh₁tūm [perfective]
furitún ← bʰoretūm [imperfective]

Potentional suffixes:

1. Potential: bʰermagʰoh₂ → fermoḫó "I can carry."
2. To have permit: bʰergʰabʰoh₂ → ferḫofó "I have a permit to carry."
3. To give permit: bʰerdʰh₃mi → ferrume "I am giving a permit to carry."

Desiderative clitic:

Desiderative is created by clitic -ye (from PIE *h₁se), who is added after a personal ending.

feróye ← bʰeroh₂ h₁se "I want carry."
þúmeye ← dʰeh₃mi h₁se "I want give."

Imperatives:

Consonant-ended stem:

Singular:

1. -
2. fere ← bʰer + i
3. -

Plural:

1. feremis ← fere + personal ending
2. fereti ← fere + personal athematic ending
3. -

Vowel-ended stem:

þótí ← dʰeh₃tei - to give

Singular:

1. -
2. þoé ← dʰeh₃ + i
3. -

Plural:

1. þoémis ← þoé + personal ending
2. þoéti ← þoé + personal athematic ending
3. -

Other verbal concepts:

- Original Proto-Indo-European middle voice, subjunctive and imperative disappeared.
- Optative shifted to subjunctive.
- New imperative on -i
Last edited by Artaxes on Sat 09 Mar 2013, 17:24, edited 18 times in total.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Fri 22 Feb 2013, 14:17

Verb Classes:

I. Class: thematic verbs on in present tense and -iyó in future tenses of 1.SG.
II. Class: athematic verbs on -me in present tense of 1.SG.
III. Class: causative verbs on -eó in present tense of 1.SG.
IV. Class: inceptive-inchoative on -(i)tsó in present tense of 1.SG.
V. Class: inceptive-inchoative forms of causative verbs on -aéššó in present tense of 1.SG.
VI. Class: denominal verbs on -iyó in present tense and -íçó in future tenses of 1.SG.
VII. Class: inceptive-inchoative forms of denominal verbs on -íššó in present tense of 1.SG.

Type of passive construction: 'to be' + passive participle.

Reputative participle:

This participle is a combination of jussive and necessitative and mean "he who necessarily should".

Numerals:

Cardinal → Ordinal

1. eunas [øːnas] → púrmas [puːrmas]
2. [doː] → doetemas [dœtɛmas]
3. þríš [θriːʃ] → þrítas [θriːtas]
4. piturí [pɪtʊriː] → piþrutas [pɪθrʊtas]
5. pempí [pɛmpiː] → pemptas [pɛmptas]
6. ḫšaosi [xʃɶːsɪ] → ḫšuestas [xʃʏstas]
7. hipti [hɪptɪ] → hiptemas [hɪptɛmas]
8. óstún [oːstuːn] → óstówas [oːstoːwas]
9. eniwa [ɛnɪwa] → eniwunas [ɛnɪwʊnas]
10. dásí [daːsiː] → dásiyas [daːsɪjas]
100. sitan [sɪtan] → sitiyas [sɪtɪjas]
1000. túššuntí [tuːʃʃʊntiː] → túššuntiyas [tuːʃʃʊntɪjas]
Last edited by Artaxes on Mon 25 Feb 2013, 14:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Sat 23 Feb 2013, 16:51

Do you have any good idea on clusters [aɛː aɔː ɛːɪ] in spelling ? Actual way is causing problematic situation with doubled vowels beside: <aai aau aii>. In this moment I have no another alternatives on this yet. What you suggesting ?
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by ✫✯♛Adnaan♛✯✫ » Sat 23 Feb 2013, 20:06

Artaxes, looking at your numerals, it becomes apparent to me that your numerals/numbering system has some influence from the Indo-Aryan Languages of India ; in particular the numbers 2 (dó) & 10 (dásí).

In Hindi 2 is called "do" & ten is called "das"

I guess the reason for this is because you've based your language on the Satem language branch, and Indo-Aryan Language are part of the Satem languages
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Sun 24 Feb 2013, 00:32

Yes, it is partially based on Indo-Iranian languages, but some similarities are convergently developed.
Satemic changes initially have way similar to Dacian, where palatovelars were shifted into alveolar affricates. Later, in some positions (ie. before a consonant) these affricates were weaked into fricatives , what caused lengthening of a preceding short vowel.
In initial sketch it was datsí and dwó.

2-4 wrote:The orthography is not put between slashes, but between <> or ‹›. [;)]
The Grand Master Plan is the sound changes, right?


Slashes to spelling were sometimes in use on Polish-speaking Conlanger forum. So this manner.
Last edited by Artaxes on Sun 24 Feb 2013, 20:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by ✫✯♛Adnaan♛✯✫ » Sun 24 Feb 2013, 01:44

I see that's very interesting Artaxes, my language is based on the Indo-Aryan branch of languages particularly modern Indo-Aryan languages like ; Hindi, Western Punjabi, Gujarati and Rajasthani Dialects.

It's very interesting that many people take interest in making conlangs out of the Indo-Iranian language family, you might have come across a user called "Aseca" his language is based off Sanskrit, well partially, I've been working with him for a short while now and we're thinking of making a conscript together and exchanging vocabulary so that my language can have loan words from his language.

It'd be interesting if you spoke with him, Sanskrit being an Indo-European language and one of the most archaic and conservative, you could implement certain aspects from Sanskrit with the help of Aseca into your Indo-european con-language, which looks very interesting and elaborate
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by atman » Sun 24 Feb 2013, 10:04

Very interesting conlang!

Is the verb 'furití' regular? If I recall correctly, Sanskrit 'bharati' is a regular verb (despite my nickname, I only know very little Sanskrit). On the other hand, Greek/Latin cognate 'φέρω'/'fero' is a very irregular suppletive verb.

What are the differences between the various verbal nouns/adjectives (participles, gerunds, supines)? What does each of them mean in your conlang?

I like your synthetic inceptive-inchoative, habitual and causative forms. My Hellenic conlang, Atlantika glosa, has similar forms too: grafo 'I write' - grafisko 'I start writing' - grafito 'I am writing' - grafiqno 'I stop writing' and so on.
Երկնէր երկին, երկնէր երկիր, երկնէր և ծովն ծիրանի.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Prinsessa » Sun 24 Feb 2013, 18:05

I like it! Can't really give any constructive criticism, but I would like to see more. Satem was my initial thought too. I noticed two things.

1. You claim that both [ɔː] and [aʊ̯] are /au/.

2. You seem to have missed this post:
2-4 wrote:The orthography is not put between slashes, but between <> or ‹›. [;)]
The Grand Master Plan is the sound changes, right?
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Sun 24 Feb 2013, 20:20

Skógvur wrote:1. You claim that both [ɔː] and [aʊ̯] are /au/.
It is minor problem to me in spelling of this conlang. All new diphthongs has limited place in phonology as direct result of resonant-semivowel clusters metathesis before a two-vowel clusters on medial position of sound changes plan - now they exist only before a groups of resonant-vowel. The [ɔː] is mainly derived from PIE short diphthong and has some more places in lexicon. Also I am not know yet how elaborate some questions in spelling. The spelling of vowels is rather etymological, ie. *ai *au → ɛː ɔː <ai au>, etc.
Adnaan wrote:It'd be interesting if you spoke with him, Sanskrit being an Indo-European language and one of the most archaic and conservative, you could implement certain aspects from Sanskrit with the help of Aseca into your Indo-european con-language, which looks very interesting and elaborate
Of course, Sanskrit is one of inspirations to this type's languages, it is very good source for derivative suffixes, among others. Avestan also is interesting and is another source of inspirations for Scurdic.
atman wrote:What are the differences between the various verbal nouns/adjectives (participles, gerunds, supines)? What does each of them mean in your conlang?
It was given now into post on conjugation.
atman wrote:Is the verb 'furití' regular? If I recall correctly, Sanskrit 'bharati' is a regular verb (despite my nickname, I only know very little Sanskrit). On the other hand, Greek/Latin cognate 'φέρω'/'fero' is a very irregular suppletive verb.
The "furití" has two roots descending from PIE ablaut: fur- and fer-. It is regular.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Mon 25 Feb 2013, 15:41

Conjugation of the verb fútí - "to be" from *bʰuh₃-

Tenses:

waþéme [wosdʰeh₁mi]
wuime [wosmi]
éme [h₁esmi]
fúme [bʰuh₃mi]
fúþéme [bʰuh₃dʰeh₁mi]

waþéme ← wosdʰeh₁mi - [past perfective]
wuime ← wosmi - [past imperfective]
éme ← h₁esmi - [present]
fúme ← bʰuh₃mi - [future imperfective]
fúþiyó ← bʰuh₃dʰh₁sioh₂ - [future perfective]

Forms:

foétsó ← bʰuh₃esḱoh₂ - [inchoative-inceptive]
waheó ← woseh₂ioh₂ - [causative]
fuinéme ← bʰuh₃neh₁mi - [habitual-iterative]

Participles:

wílas ← weslos - [active past perfective] (he who finished the work/action)
wiƕas ← weswos - [active past imperfective] (he who not finished the work/action)
isitas ← h₁esn̩tos - [active present] (he who is working in the same time with speaker saying or his work/action is still continued)
fústas ← bʰuh₃h₁stos - [active future imperfective] (he who will worked in a future time and/or effects of his work are doubtful)
fúdistas ← bʰuh₃dh₁stos - [active future perfective] (he who will finished work in a future with definite effects; also may mean a very short and momentaneous action in future)

foémptas ← bʰuh₃enkʷtos - [active potentional]

foénkas ← bʰuh₃enkʷos - [reputative; only passive]

Gerunds:

Gerunds are deverbal action/process nouns, but also may have infinitival functions.

fúþátí ← bʰuh₃dʰeh₁tei [perfective]
fútí ← bʰuh₃tei [imperfective] (lexical form)

Supinum:

Supinum is the other deverbal noun and mean goal of a subject.

fúþátún ← bʰuh₃dʰeh₁tūm [perfective]
fútún ← bʰuh₃tūm [imperfective]

Potentional suffixes:

1. Potential: bʰuh₃magʰoh₂ → fuimoḫó "I can be."
2. To have permit: bʰuh₃gʰabʰoh₂ → fúḫofó "I have a permit to be."
3. To give permit: bʰuh₃dʰh₃mi → fúþume "I am giving a permit to be."

Desiderative clitic:

Desiderative is created by clitic -ye (from PIE *h₁se), who is added after a personal ending.

fuimeye ← bʰuh₃mi h₁se "I want be."

Imperatives:

Present:

Singular:

1. -
2. ise ← h₁es + i
3. -

Plural:

1. isemis ← ise + personal ending
2. iseti ← ise + personal athematic ending
3. -

Future imperfective:

Singular:

1. -
2. fúþe ← bʰuh₃dʰi
3. -

Plural:

1. fúþemis ← fúþe + personal ending
2. fúþeti ← fúþe + personal athematic ending
3. -

Future perfective:

Singular:

1. -
2. fúḫtaé ← bʰuh₃dʰdʰeh₂i
3. -

Plural:

1. fúḫtaémis ← fúḫtaé + personal ending
2. fúḫtaéti ← fúḫtaé + personal athematic ending
3. -
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Mon 25 Feb 2013, 16:59

Personal endings on verbs:

Thematic:

Singular:

1. -ó ← *-oh₂
2. -iye ← *-esi
3. -it ← *-eti

Plural:

1. -umis ← *-o-me-s
2. -itis ← *-e-te-s
3. -unt ← *-onte

Athematic:

Singular:

1. -me ← *-mi
2. -he ← *-si
3. -t ← *-ti

Plural:

1. -mis ← *-me-s
2. -tis ← *-te-s
3. -nt ← *-nti

Noun participle of actor:

furitúr ← bʰoretōr "he who carries"
þótúr ← dʰoh₃tōr "he who gives/giver"

Adverbial participles:

These participles are almost identical to adjectivized forms. They are created by deleting a gender ending (-as, , -an), and inserting in this place the adverbial ending -o.

Passive participles with adverbial ending mean an impersonal construction, where actor is unknown, or has less importance in action according to speaker.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Tue 26 Feb 2013, 16:43

Prefixes on verbs:

The prefixes are not causing aspectual change from Imperfective to Perfective, but only modify a meaning of verbal root.

Present tense, SG. 1.

émó ← eimoh₂ - I am walking/I am going
enímó ← h₁en eimoh₂ - I am entering/I am moving in
anímó ← h₂en eimoh₂ - I am meeting (someone)
odímó ← h₂ed eimoh₂ - I am walking away
isímó ← h₁eǵʰs eimoh₂ - I am going out
daímó ← do eimoh₂ - I am going to/I am coming to
apaiymó ← h₂opi eimoh₂ - I am going/I am coming
térímó ← tr̩h₂ eimoh₂ - I am passing
antaiymó ← h₂enti eimoh₂ - I am going "by front to front"
praímó ← pr̩h₂eh₁ eimoh₂ - I am overtaking
oeímó ← h₂eu eimoh₂ - I am dispersing/ramifying from
sanímó ← ḱom eimoh₂ - I am going with
afaiymó ← h₃bʰi eimoh₂ - I am going around
upaímó ← upo eimoh₂ - I am approaching
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Tue 26 Feb 2013, 18:33

The Nominals:

Gender:

Scurdic language has the three genders:

1. Masculine: I., IV.a., VII.
2. Feminine: II., IV.b, VI., VIII.-XI.
3. Neuter: III., V., VII.

Declensions:

I. Declension: -as, oelpas ← wl̩kʷos - 'wolf'
II. Declension: in Nominative & -ans in Accusative, béná ← gʷēneh₂ - 'woman, wife'
III. Declension: -an in Nominative & Accusative, neždan ← nisdom - 'nest'
IV. Declension: -r-, potér ← ph₂tēr - 'father'
V. Declension: -s-, nifas ← nebʰos - 'cloud'
VI. Declension: -t-/-d-, valatás ← bh₂loteh₂ts - 'force, strength, energy, power'
VII. Declension: -n-, úsén ← uḱsēn - 'ox'
VIII. Declension: -e-, amneš ← h₃egʷnis - 'fire'
IX. Declension: -í-, dótí ← deh₃tei - 'giving'
X. Declension: -u-, duruš ← dorus - 'tree'
XI. Declension: -ú-, múš ← muh₃s - 'mouse'

Supinum has only two cases: Accusative and Ablative.

All Proto-Indo-European cases are preserved.

1. Nominative
2. Vocative
3. Accusative
4. Genitive
5. Dative
6. Ablative
7. Instrumental
8. Locative


Scurdic nouns has only two grammatical numbers: singular and plural. Dual number is extinct.
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Wed 27 Feb 2013, 15:46

Adnominal adjectives:

Animate possession: ásúnas ← h₁eḱwoh₂nos 'possessed by horse, belonging to horse'
Inaminate possession: pueliyas ← pulih₂os 'of hair, associated with hair'
Similarity: ásoekas ← h₁eḱwokos 'similar to horse, equid'
Feature: puelísas ← puliḱos 'hairy'
Origin from: ásuiškas ← h₁eḱwoiskos 'derived from horse'

Adjectives are inflect by genders, numbers and cases in the same way as nouns. Also they have own inflection by four degrees.

Comparison of adjectives:

midzasmeǵos - big, great

Masculine:

Positive: midzas ← meǵos [big]
Comparative: mižas ← meǵios [bigger]
Optimative: misteras ← meǵteros [the biggest from determined group]
Superlative: midzeštas ← meǵistos [the biggest from all another]

Feminine:

Positive: midzá ← meǵeh₂
Comparative: mižá ← meǵieh₂
Optimative: misterá ← meǵtereh₂
Superlative: midzeštá ← meǵisteh₂

Neuter:

Positive: midzan ← meǵom
Comparative: mižan ← meǵiom
Optimative: misteran ← meǵterom
Superlative: midzeštan ← meǵistom

Adverbs:

The Adverbs are created only from adjectival forms by deleting gender's ending and adding adverbial ending -o.

Comparison of adverbs:

midzomeǵh₂ - greatly

Positive: midzo ← meǵh₂ [greatly]
Comparative: midzí ← meǵih₂ [more greatly]
Optimative: mistero ← meǵterh₂ [the most greatly with determined intensity]
Superlative: midzešto ← meǵisth₂ [the most greatly with the most intensity]
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Wed 27 Feb 2013, 18:35

The Pronouns:

Personal pronouns:

Singular:

1. idzó ← h₁eǵoh₃
2. tú ← tuh₃
3. anas ← h₂enos / aná ← h₂eneh₂ / anan ← h₂enom

Plural:

1. mis ← mes
2. wis ← wes
3. anis ← h₂enes / anás ← h₂eneh₂s / aná ← h₂eneh₂

Declension of personal pronouns:

1.SG

1. Nominative: idzó ← h₁eǵoh₃
2. Vocative: not existing in this case
3. Accusative: mi ← h₁me
4. Genitive: meni ← h₁mene
5. Dative: mui ← h₁moi
6. Ablative: mid ← h₁med
7. Instrumental: muin ← h₁moi + -m
8. Locative: mui ← h₁moi

1.PL

1. Nominative: mis ← mes
2. Vocative: not existing in this case
3. Accusative: nós ← nōs
4. Genitive: nas ← nos
5. Dative: númis ← nōmes
6. Ablative: nód ← nōd
7. Instrumental: núme ← nōmi
8. Locative: nui ← noi

2.SG

1. Nominative: tú ← tuh₃
2. Vocative: not existing in this case
3. Accusative: ti ← te
4. Genitive: tiwi ← tewe
5. Dative: tife ← tebʰi
6. Ablative: tued ← twed
7. Instrumental: tuin ← toi + -m
8. Locative: tui ← toi

2.PL

1. Nominative: wí ← wei
2. Vocative: not existing in this case
3. Accusative: wós ← wōs
4. Genitive: was ← wos
5. Dative: wuimeš ← wosmis
6. Ablative: wuimid ← wosmed
7. Instrumental: wuimen ← wosmi + -m
8. Locative: wuime ← wosmi

Personal pronouns of third person are inflected as nouns with the same gender's endings.

Possessive pronouns:

A one object is possessed:

1. mayas ← moios - 'my'
2. toeyas ← twoios - 'your'
3.M anayas ← h₂enosios - 'his'
3.F anáyas ← h₂eneh₂ios - 'her'
3.N anuimas ← h₂enomios - 'its'

1. nóyas ← nōios - 'our'
2. wóyas ← wōios - 'your'
3. áhas ← h₂eh₂sos - 'their'

Possessive pronouns are inflected as nouns with the same gender's endings.

Demonstrative pronouns:

Proper demonstratives (describing an objects, beings, places etc. in proper distance from speaker):

Singular:

tas ← tos M 'this one'
tá ← teh₂ F 'this one'
tan ← tom N 'it'

Plural:

tui ← toi M 'these ones'
taé ← teh₂i F 'these ones'
tá ← teh₂ N 'these ones'

Non-personal proper demonstratives:

sešo ← ḱish₂ - 'here'
seško ← ḱiskh₂ - 'this way'
otseško ← h₂ed ḱiskh₂ - 'hence'
daseško ← do ḱiskh₂ - 'so far'
eto ← ith₂ - 'by this method'
téna ← toeno - 'then'
nuyau ← nu iau - 'at present, now'

Distant demonstratives (describing an objects, beings, places etc. in longer distance from speaker):

Singular:

iyas ← eios
iyá ← eieh₂
iyan ← eiom

Plural:

iís ← eies
iyaé ← eieh₂i
iyá ← eieh₂

Non-personal distant demonstratives:

tak ← tok - 'there'
taileš ← teh₂lis - 'that way'
ottak ← h₂ed tok - 'thence, therefrom'
datak ← do tok - 'to there'
opuro ← h₂eporh₂ - 'later, next'

Reflexive pronoun:

This pronoun indicate action performed on actor by himself. It has only one form to all persons and numbers, and is inflected by cases in own declension.

hi ← s(w)e 'himself/herself/itself'

1. Nominative: not existing in this case
2. Vocative: not existing in this case
3. Accusative: hi ← s(w)e
4. Genitive: hiwi ← sewe
5. Dative: hifiya ← sebʰio
6. Ablative: hid ← sed
7. Instrumental: heme ← semi
8. Locative: hiwi ← sewe

Possessive-reflexive pronoun:

Singular:

ƕayas ← swoios
ƕayá ← swoieh₂
ƕayan ← swoiom

Plural:

ƕayeu ← swoioi
ƕayaé ← swoieh₂i
ƕayan ← swoiom

Reciprocal pronoun:

afáhi ← h₃ebʰeh₂ se 'each other'

The h₃ebʰeh₂ mean 'these two together/as one'.

Declension of this pronoun is analogical to declension of reflexive pronoun.

Interrogative & relative pronouns:

pas ← kʷos - 'who'
pad ← kʷod - 'what'
pateras ← kʷoteros - 'who, which, how' (adjectival)
pád ← kʷeh₂d - 'how' (adverbial)
paindó ← kʷeh₂mdō - 'when'
pátak ← kʷeh₂ tok - 'where'
piyendis ← kʷiendes - 'whence'
páska ← kʷeh₂sko - 'which way'
própímí ← prō kʷesmei - 'why'

Indefinite pronouns:

These pronouns are created by sufiks ale- (← PIE *ali-) from interrogatives.

Numeral pronouns:

walis ← wales - 'many [M]'
walaé ← waleh₂i - 'many [F]'
walá ← waleh₂ - 'many [N]'
púro ← paurh₂ - 'little' (adverbial)
tat ← tot - 'so much, so a lot'
tatiyens ← totiens - 'so many times'
pat ← kʷot - 'how much'
paptat ← kʷot kʷot - 'however many'
patiyens ← kʷotiens - 'how many times'
semo ← sm̩mh₂ - 'some, few'
paóko ← peh₂ukh₂ - 'few'
wešas ← wiswos - 'all, every'
afá ← h₃ebʰeh₂ - 'both'
hulo ← sm̩lh₂ - 'half times'

Universal pronouns:

téroešis ← tr̩h₂ wiswes - 'always'
dawešis ← do wiswes - 'forever'
wešoeþí ← wiswodʰei - 'everywhere'
wešis ← wiswes - 'all (M)'
wešaé ← wisweh₂i - 'all (F)'
wešá ← wisweh₂ - 'all'
puilas ← kʷolios - 'every (M)'
puilá ← kʷolieh₂ - 'every (F)'
puilan ← kʷoliom - 'every (N)'
odoešoeþí ← h₂ed wiswodʰei - 'from everywhere'
dawešoeþí ← do wiswodʰei - 'to everywhere'

Negative pronouns:

nipas ← ne kʷos - 'nobody'
nipád ← ne kʷeh₂d - 'none'
nipateras ← ne kʷoteros - 'neuter'
nipaþí ← ne kʷodʰei - 'nowhere'
nipan ← ne kʷom - 'never'
odnipaþí ← h₂ed ne kʷodʰei - 'from nowhere'
danipaþí ← do ne kʷodʰei - 'to nowhere'
nipuilas ← ne kʷalios - 'no every (M)'
nipuilaé ← ne kʷalieh₂i - 'no every (F)'
nipuilan ← ne kʷaliom - 'no every (N)'
niwešis ← ne wiswes - 'no all (M)'
niwešaé ← ne wisweh₂i - 'no all (F)'
niwešas ← ne wiswos - 'no all'
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Fri 01 Mar 2013, 16:44

The Prepositions:

Locative prepositions with Accusative case mean motion to something and used with Ablative case mean motion from special locative position. The same prepositions using with Dative also mean succesfull motion to a target.

en ← h₁en - 'in'
an ← h₂en - 'on'
od ← h₂ed - 'from'
san ← ḱom - 'with' [commitative preposition; Instrumental]
ape ← h₂opi - 'beside'
da ← do - 'to'
enter ← h₁enter - 'between'
is ← h₁eǵʰs - 'to outside'
odne ← h₂ed ni - 'from down'
amfe ← h₂m̩bʰi - 'around'
dane ← do ni - 'into down, downward'
upa ← upo - 'under'
úd ← ūd - 'upward'
sanuino ← ḱom oinh₂ - 'together with'
térs ← tr̩h₂s - 'through'
per ← per - 'by'
pró ← prō - 'for'
uper ← h₂uperi - 'over'
prá ← pr̩h₂eh₁ - 'before (a time)'
opa ← h₂epo - 'behind'
past ← posti - 'after'
hení ← senih₂ - 'outside, beyond'
ano ← h₂enh₂e - 'along'
fis ← bʰeǵʰ - 'without'
próte ← prōti - 'against'
ante ← h₂enti - 'before (location)'
anstelan ← h₂en stelom - 'instead'
lígo ← līgh₂ - 'like, similar as'
oso ← h₂eǵʰh₂ - 'as, like, under a form or character'
odupa ← h₂ed upo - 'from under'
odúd ← h₂ed ūd - 'from over'
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Re: Scurdic - third version

Post by Artaxes » Sat 02 Mar 2013, 14:11

The Conjunctions and particles:

Conjunctions:

í ← ei - 'and'
fá ← bʰeh₂ - 'because'
eto ← ith₂ - 'so'
wá ← wē - 'or'
ot ← at - 'but'
híwi ← seiwe - 'if'

Particles:

ni ← ne - 'no, not'
o-, on- ← n̩- - 'privative prefix'
má ← mē - 'prohibitive negation'
iyan ← ei on - 'also'
dé ← de ei - 'yes'
had ← s(w)od - 'so'
wai ← wai - 'exclamation particle'
á ← eh₂ - 'exclamation particle'
nu ← nu - 'now'
çi ← gʰe - 'that (connector of subordinate clauses)'
aro ← arh₂ - 'interrogative particle'
isti ← este - 'yet, also'
daomo ← do umh₂ - 'still'
odneó ← h₂ed newh₂ - 'anew'
euno ← oinh₂ - 'only'
én ← ih₂m - 'already'
íyau ← ei iau - 'even'
ite ← h₁eti - 'too'
maso ← moḱsh₂ - 'soon'
bá ← bʰeh₂ - 'exactly' (loanword from sister conlang)
Last edited by Artaxes on Sun 10 Mar 2013, 15:44, edited 2 times in total.
Artaxes' Home Page - Skurdúškos - Indo-European Satəm conlang [First attempt]
Skurðuiškas [Final version]
Proto-Eurasian - equivalent of the Proto-Indo-European
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/əːˈʈä́ʂis/
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