From Middle Savinnic to Modern Savinnic:
Roughly 1700CE to 2000CE.
Voicing around a liquid:
C[-voice] → C[+voice] / _[lr] except word initially
C[-voice] → C[+voice] / [lr]_
'head' ['kastrɛ] → ['kazdrɐ]
Nasal + stop:
ng → ŋŋ /_V
nd → nn /_V
mb → mm /_V (yes, again
nk → ng / _V
nt → nd / _V
mp → mb / _V
e.g. these should be common but need loan words to work
Coda loss after long vowels:
C² → C / V:_
l → w / V_$
rC → Cr / V:_V
V: → V / _C$ **or** C → ∅ / V:_C (unsure, maybe have a separate outcome for long diphthongs? [du:j] to [duj] or [du:]?)
'thief' ['kolp] → ['koup] (oblique stem koub-), no immediate examples of the other changes
Reduction of unstressed vowels:
a ɛ → ɐ / _[-stress]
e i oi ui → ɪ / _[-stress]
o u ou → ʊ / _[-stress]
ai ɛi → ɐɪ / _[-stress]
au ɛu → ɐʊ / _[-stress]
Word final devoicing:
C[+voice] → C[-voice] / _#
'against' ['kottruz] → ['koddrʊs]
S/Z + stop:
s → ʃ / _D (dental)
z → ʒ / _D
w → ∅ / [ʃʒ]_
'sister' ['swɛzzur] → ['ʃwɛzzur] → ['ʃɛzzʊr]
Rhotacisation of d:
d → r / _
rr → ddr / _
e.g. Ital. Madonna
→ ['mbronnɐ], arraito
'silver' ['arraito] → ['addrɐɪtʊ] (this word is cognate with Ital. argento
, how cool is that!?)
Should I have nasalisation? I'm thinking it's possibly allophonic, with the nasal lost word-finally except in stressed monosyllables.
Syntactic doubling: Many unstressed particles ending in long vowels or consonants lose them, but to preserve the length the first consonant of the following word is usually doubled. As an example, ioc
[jok] 3SG.atonic loses the final [k] but lengthens the first consonant of the following verb: ju pprovvau
'I like him'.
The doubling only happens where doubling can happen, so a word such as spagnul
'Spanish' doesn't undergo syntactic doubling. It also only happens to full verbs, nouns and substantive adjectives. The semivowels which can't be geminate become nasals (as in the compensatory lengthening).
In 1712, the Kingdom of Naples was given to the Holy Roman Empire, but Austrian rule only lasted until 1734 when it was reconquered by Spain. In 1799 it was part of the revolt supported by the French that led to the formation of the Parthenopean republic.
This lasted only briefly as the lower classes and the clergy were still loyal to the king, and ended less than five months later. It was a rather rough time for southern Italy, but it was certainly not over.
In 1806, Napoleon took Naples under his control as part of his empire. When Napoleon was defeated, the previous king was reinstalled but this time as the ruler of the new Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which once again joined southern Italy with the island of Sicily.
The merger in the already war torn region led to abject poverty, and many Oscans along with other southern Italians emigrated in search of a better life. As the region was brought out of feudalism, banditry and brigandage rose dramatically.
In 1860 it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia, which became the Kingdom of Italy a year later. From here the history should look very familiar: it joined the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, before switching sides during WWI in 1915.
In 1922 the Fascist party was elected and Benito Mussolini became the totalitarian dictator, allying with Nazi Germany. Under the harsh rule, the Oscan language, which was seen as inferior along with the majority of Italian languages, suffered greatly and was largely replaced by Standard Italian.
In 1943, the region was heavily occupied by the Allies, and this led to a flood of English loanwords. In the following years, the region had an influx of southern workers which further endangered the Oscan language.
In 1946, the Republic of Italy was established, which still exists today. The language continues to see a large number of Standard Italian loans as the language is completely unrecognised at the state level. It is however promoted by the region of Molise.