1. Phonology (Consonants, Vowels, Phonotactics, Stress), Regular Verbs (a-Conjugation, i-Conjugation, l-Conjugation), Irregular Verbs, "to be"
2. e-Conjugation, Imperative
3. Sound changes
4. Interrogative, Formal Indicative
5. Fourth Person, Vocabulary I
Since I'm still kind of new to all of this is one of the reason why I started working on Noattȯč. I wanted to work on something I'm familiar with and I also wanted to experiment. So there's Noattȯč which is a descendant of my native tongue, German. Hence the name Noattȯč which comes from norddeutsch. The pronunciation didn't change at all in some words, but in other words it did change a lot. Most changes will concern grammar because I assume that German will stay quite stable phonology-wise, but the few sound changes force the grammar to change. I don't have much stuff to talk about yet but I really like it and I hope I won't give up (sadly, I'm terrible at not giving up ), but we'll see!
/m n ŋ/ <m n ƞ>
/p b t d k ɡ ʔ/ <p b t d k g q>
/ts tʃ ʈʂ/ <c ċ č>
/s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ/ <s z ṡ ż š ž>
/f ç x/ <f ḥ h>
/w l ɾ j/ <v l r j>
- Some of the consonants can be geminated, those are: /m n ŋ p t k ç w l/. At least I haven't found any other geminated consonants yet, but I would really like to have at least a geminated voiceless velar fricative!
- All nasal consonants can be geminated. They also can be syllabic in some cases (but I'm trying to get rid of syllabic nasals, still not sure how).
I'm also not sure about the glottal stop because?
/ɪ i ʏ y ʊ u/ <ı i y ẏ u u̇>
/ɛ e œ ø ɔ o/ <e ė w ẇ o ȯ>
/a a² ə/ <a ȧ ə>
/ɛ² ɔ²/ <ea oa>
- Every vowel is pronounced short except when in a stressed syllable. In a stressed syllable /i y u e ø o a² ɛ² ɔ²/ are pronounced as [iː yː uː eː oː øː aː ɛː ɔː], obviously.
- /a ɛ ɔ/ stay short, which differentiates them from /a² ɛ² ɔ²/.
- /ə/ also stays short everywhere since it can't be in a stressed syllable.
- This does not apply if the following consonant is geminated. The vowel remains short then.
- Diphthongs exist and almost every vowel plus /ɪ/ or /ʊ/ is allowed. Most of those stem from German /Vɪə/ or the old diphthongs at the end of a word.
I'm still confused about this part but I guess it's most likely the same as in German. Really confused.
(s, ʂ) C (w, ɾ, j) V (m, n, ŋ, ts, tʃ, ʈʂ, s, ʂ, f, ç, l) C
Stress isn't fixed, but most words have their stress on the first syllable of the root word. There are also a lot of exceptions thanks to loanwords. Words not having their stress on the first syllable have secondary stress on the first syllable.
The grammar is not planned out at all yet. My main inspiration for this project was colloquial German and it's wonderful contractions like hast du > haste. All of this kind of started as a developed version of colloquial German and I try to get it kind of further than that. I haven't really done much of the grammar part yet but I'm really looking forward to that. It will most likely turn out more agglutinative regarding the verbs with a lot of suffixes I guess. I don't know about the rest, I only focused on the verbs.
There are three tenses which are past, present and future. Past tense and future tense will be created using suffixes. There are first, second and third person which can all be singular and plural. For third person singular, verbs can be conjugated for all of the three genders which are masculine, feminine and neuter. And again, everything is formed by suffixes. I plan on developing some moods, especially the imperative which I have already planned out since that was quite easy. There are also three main conjugations and some irregular verbs.
Also called the a-conjugation since that's the vowel that differentiates this conjugation from the other two main conjugations. The a-conjugation is the most prominent conjugation and it stems from German verbs ending in -ern. It became applied to a lot of verbs to avoid extreme irregularities of normal German -en verbs which became irregular to a lot of sound changes. Most verbs of this conjugation have their stress on the first syllabe except in second person plural where it's on the penultimate syllable. Here's the example verb lȧman ( labern) meaning to talk:
1SG lȧm-ȧḥ [ˈlaː.maç] < laber ich
2SG lȧm-astə [ˈlaː.mas.tə] < laberste < laberst du
3SGm lȧm-ata [ˈlaː.ma.ta] < labert er
3SGf lȧm-acə [ˈlaː.ma.tsə] < labert se < labert sie
3SGn lȧm-ac [ˈlaː.mats] < labert's < labert es
1PL lȧm-avva [ˈlaː.ma.wwa] < labern wa < labern wir
2PL lȧm-atȧrə [ˌla.ma.ˈtaː.ɾə] < labert er alle < labert ihr
3PL lȧm-annə [ˈlaː.ma.nnə] < labern se < labern sie
Also called the i-conjugation because of the same reason. This conjugation is also often seen and has its origins in the good old German -ieren verbs and this conjugation mostly features verbs from Latin or French. One major feature of this conjugation is that most of the verbs aren't stressed on the stem, the stress falls on the first syllable of the suffix. The only exeption is the second person plural again. So here's the example verb kapin ( kapieren) meaning to understand:
1SG kap-iḥ [ka.ˈpiːç] < kapier ich < kapiere ich
2SG kap-istə [ka.ˈpiːs.tə] < kapierste < kapierst du
3SGm kap-ita [ka.ˈpiː.ta] < kapiert er
3SGf kap-icə [ka.ˈpiː.tsə] < kapiert se < kapiert sie
3SGn kap-ic [ka.ˈpiːts] < kapiert's < kapiert es
1PL kap-ivva [ka.ˈpiː.wwa] < kapiern wa < kapieren wir
2PL kap-itȧrə [ˌka.pi.ˈtaː.ɾə] < kapiert er alle < kapiert ihr
3PL kap-innə [ka.ˈpi.nnə] < kapiern se < kapieren sie
Also called the l-conjugations purely because of its origins. All the German verbs ending in -eln belong here, so they're stressed on the first syllable of the stem, just as the first conjugation. And as always: except in second person plural. The most visible changes are in the first and second person singular, the rest is pretty much the same as the other two conjugations just with another vowel again! And here's the example verb brıcın ( blinzeln) meaning to squint:
1SG brıc-rıḥ [ˈbɾɪts.ɾɪç] < blinzel ich
2SG brıc-ıctə [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪts.tə] < blinzelste < blinzelst du
3SGm brıc-ıta [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪ.ta] < blinzelt er
3SGf brıc-ıcə [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪ.tsə] < blinzelt se < blinzelt sie
3SGn brıc-ıc [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪts] < blinzelt's < blinzelt es
1PL brıc-ıvva [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪ.wwa] < blinzeln wa < blinzeln wir
2PL brıc-ıtȧrə [ˌbɾɪ.tsɪ.ˈtaː.ɾə] < blinzelt er alle < blinzelt ihr
3PL brıc-ınnə [ˈbɾɪ.tsɪ.nnə] < blinzeln se < blinzeln sie
There are some irregular verbs in Noattȯč which stem from irregular German verbs or verbs ending in -en which were used too often so they didn't change to verbs of the a-conjugation. Irregular verbs are e.g. to be, to have, to go, to be able or to become. A lot of irregular verbs have a different suffix for the second person plural because there wasn't a need to form a new one.
1SG bınıḥ [ˈbɪ.nɪç] < bin ich
2SG bıstə [ˈbɪs.tə] < biste < bist du
3SGm qısa [ˈʔɪ.sa] < is er < ist er
3SGf qısə [ˈʔɪ.sə] < is se < ist sie
3SGn qıss [ˈʔɪss] < is 's < ist es
1PL zıvva1 [ˈzɪ.wwa] < sind wa < sind wir
2PL zȧta [ˈzaː.ta] < seid er < seid ihr
3PL zıcə2 [ˈzɪ.tsə] < sind se < sind sie
1 It should have been zıntva but I thought that changing /zɪnt/ to /zɪn/ seems reasonable and it also yields a more regular ending plus it sounds better in my opinion!
2 The same change doesn't happen here because the combination of /t/ and /z/ quickly becomes /ts/ which stays this way.
And that's it for now. I sat here way too long and I really want to see some reactions now! If you have any questions, ask. If you find any mistakes, please correct me!