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Ebon
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Post by Ebon » Fri 23 Sep 2016, 23:06

Aretach is from the same conworld as Nereifa. I still haven't made a thread about my conworld. Can somebody kick me, please.

Aretach is a highly agglutinative pro-drop language. Its predominant word order is SOV.

Phonology

/t d k g p b/ <t d k g p b>
/s z ɕ f v ç x h/ <s z sh f v c ch h>
/m n~ŋ/ <m n>
/l ɹ w/ <l r w>

/a e~ɛ/ <a e>
/ i~ɪ~aj/ <i>
/o~ɔ~ɔʊ/ <o>
/u~ɯ y/ <u y>
/uj~wi ej/ <ui ei>

Notes:
  • The letters e, i and o are pronounced differently depending on whether they're stressed or unstressed and whether it's an open or closed syllable. The different sounds are considered the same in Aretach.
    The general rule is that in open syllable it's /ɔʊ aj/, in closed syllables it's either of the other options.
  • n is pronounced /ŋ/ when it precedes /g k/.
  • Stress is lexical, but most commonly on the penultimate syllable of the core word before adding any affixes. Stress doesn't change when affixes are added.
  • y may be pronounced /i/ when word-final.

Nouns

Nouns inflect for number (dual, plural) and case (unmarked nominative, accusative, genitive, comitative, locative); case markings reflect noun gender (animate, inanimate) except in the locative. Definite nouns are marked by an article except in the locative; it too reflects number, gender and case. Indefinite nouns don't have an article. Articles follow their nouns; case markers are prefixes.

General case affix rules:
Spoiler:
Nouns currently don't undergo many changes other than getting a case prefix. I'll update as needed.
1. Case prefixes fuse with the first vowel if it's the same. Example: adige (roof) > sadige (ACC.roof)
2. Unvoiced stops between two vowels become voiced. (This is generally the case in Aretach.) Example: kagur (forest) > degagur (ACC.forest)
General number affix rules:
Spoiler:
The number suffixes are -ge (dual) and -dhy (plural).
I'm still fiddling with this, but this is what I have for now.
1. Word-final E is removed before the suffix is attached. Example: stire (tree) > stirge/stirdhy (tree.DU/PL)
2. If the word ends with a stop (including those who do after rule 1 is applied), the stop is removed. However, the preceding vowel's pronunciation does not change as a result.
Example: onstide /ˈɔn.staj.dɛ/ (scholar) > onstige/onstidhy /ˈɔn.stɪ.gɛ ˈɔn.stɪd.hy/ (scholar.DU/PL)
3. The D of -dhy is considered a coda if it follows a vowel and may influence pronunciation. Example: ki /kaj/ (house, home) > kidhy /kɪd.hy/ (house.PL)
4. One (person) is an irregular noun; the suffixes are attached as is.
(All examples are singular - dual - plural.)

Animate: hire /ˈhaj.ɹɛ/ animal
Spoiler:
Nominative: unmarked
hire o /ˈhaj.ɹɛ ɔʊ/
hirge og /ˈhɪɹ.gɛ ɔg/
hirdhy ohon /ˈhɪɹd.hy ˈɔʊ.hɔn/

Genitive: fe-
fehire ro /fɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ ɹɔʊ/
fehirge rig /fɛ.ˈhɪɹ.ge ɹɪg/
fehirdhy ren /fɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy ɹɛn/

Accusative: de-
dehire do /dɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ dɔʊ/
dehirge dyg /dɛ.ˈhɪɹ.ge dyg/
dehirdhy den /dɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy dɛn/

Comitative: pe-
pehire pyr /pɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ pyɹ/
pehirge pagy /pɛ.ˈhɪɹ.gɛ ˈpa.gi/
pehirdhy pahon /pɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy ˈpa.hɔn/

Locative: kir-
kirhire /kɪɹ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ/
[Other forms omitted]

Inanimate: dohade /dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ/ mouth
Spoiler:
Nominative: unmarked
dohade e /dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ e/
dohage eg /dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ɛg/
dohadhy en /dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ɛn/

Genitive: fas-
fasdohade re /fas.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ ɹe/
fasdohage rag /fas.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ɹag/
dasdohadhy ran /fas.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ɹan/

Accusative: sa-
sadohade wy /sa.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ wy/
sadohage wug /sa.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ wug/
sadohadhy wahon /sa.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ˈwa.hɔn/

Comitative: pa-
padohade per /pa.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ pɛɹ/
padohage peog /pa.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ˈpe.ɔg/
padohadhy pyn /pa.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy pyn/

Locative: kir-
kirdohade /kɪɹ.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ/
[Other forms omitted]
The division into animate and inanimate is based as much on phonetics as on logic (that's why levynde (cat) is inanimate, but kive (wheel) is animate), but due to sound changes, it's often not possible to tell from pronunciation in which category a noun belongs.


Example sentences:
(Kahe) degagur do egymarhes.
/ˈka.hɛ dɛ.ga.ˈguɹ dɔʊ ɛ.ˈgy.maɹ.hɛs/
1SG ACC.forest DEF.ACC explore.CESS.1SG
I stop exploring the forest.

Eleskir onege og dehyrdhy tidne.
/ˈe.lɛs.kɪɹg ˈɔʊ.nɛ.gɛ ɔg dɛ.ˈhyɹd.hy ˈtɪd.nɛ/
brave.DU.ANIM person.DU DEF.DU ACC.bird.PL eat.3DU
The two brave people eat birds.

Hire kirgavar o hirfagvelne.
/ˈhaj.ɹɛ kɪɹ.ga.ˈvaɹ ɔʊ ˈhɪɹ.fa.gvɛl.nɛ/
animal water.LOC DEF fish_be.3SG
The animal in the water is a fish.

Eshegy onstide deglesde orfulesgure.
/ˈe.ɕɛ.gi ˈɔn.staj.dɛ dɛ.ˈglɛs.dɛ ɔɹ.fu.ˈlɛs.gu.ɹɛ/
wise.SG.ANIM scholar ACC.sword PAST.carry.INCH.3SG
A wise scholar started carrying a sword.


Midnight approaches, so I'll leave it at that for now. I'll be back with verbs soon, I hope.
Last edited by Ebon on Mon 02 Oct 2017, 21:48, edited 13 times in total.
Iyionaku
mayan
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Posts: 1583
Joined: Sun 25 May 2014, 13:17

Re: Aretach

Post by Iyionaku » Sat 24 Sep 2016, 02:34

Looks nice so far! I like your morphosyntax a lot. I would like to see the exakt formation rules.
Ebon wrote:/a e ɛ/ <a e e>
/ i ɪ aj/ <i i i>
/o ɔ ɔʊ/ <o o o>
/u y/ <u y>
/uj ej/ <ui ei>

Notes:

The letters e, i and o are pronounced differently depending on whether they're stressed or unstressed and whether it's an open or closed syllable. The different sounds are considered the same in Aretach.
If so, then /e ɛ/ (and the other ones, respectively) are not separate phonemes, but allophones. (Except there are minimal pairs). So it is /e/, which can be articulated as [e] or [ɛ].
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
Ebon
sinic
sinic
Posts: 431
Joined: Sat 02 Jul 2016, 19:55

Re: Aretach

Post by Ebon » Sun 25 Sep 2016, 12:27

Iyionaku wrote:Looks nice so far! I like your morphosyntax a lot. I would like to see the exakt formation rules.
I added what I have so far in the first post. :)
lyionaku wrote: If so, then /e ɛ/ (and the other ones, respectively) are not separate phonemes, but allophones. (Except there are minimal pairs). So it is /e/, which can be articulated as [e] or [ɛ].
And this is why writing phonology at 11pm when being sleep deprived is something I should probably not do again.
Thanks for the reminder. Did I write it down correctly now? I think this is how it works, but what do I know.
Ebon
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sinic
Posts: 431
Joined: Sat 02 Jul 2016, 19:55

Re: Aretach

Post by Ebon » Tue 27 Sep 2016, 20:03

Verbs

Aretach verbs conjugate for person and number (both dual and plural).

Class I verbs: -de
Spoiler:
Infinitive: tide /ˈtaj.dɛ/ - to eat
1SG: tidhe /ˈtɪd.hɛ/
1DU: tidag /ˈtaj.dag/
1PL: tidit /ˈtaj.dɪt/

2SG: tidat /ˈtaj.dat/
2DU: tided /ˈtaj.dɛd/
2PL: tiden /ˈtaj.dɛn//

3SG: tidne /ˈtɪd.nɛ/
3DU: tidne /ˈtɪd.nɛ/
3PL: tidni /ˈtɪd.naj/
Other classes TBA

The copula

Aretach's copula, -fel, attaches directly to nouns to create a new verb with the meaning "to be (noun)", which has an irregular conjugation pattern. The following rules must be obeyed in doing so:
1. Word-final e on the noun is removed.
2. If the noun ends in a voiced stop, the copula becomes -vel.

Example:
Spoiler:
one + fel = onfel; to be a person

1SG: onfale
1DU: onfin
1PL: onfur

2SG: onfer
2DU: onferi
2PL: onfesh

3SG: onfelne
3DU: onfule
3PL: onfalas


onstide + fel = onstidvel; to be a scholar

1SG: onstidvale
1DU: onstidvin
1PL: onstidvur

2SG: onstidver
2DU: onstidveri
2PL: onstidvesh

3SG: onstidvelne
3DU: onstidvule
3PL: onstidvalas
Negation
Negation is accomplished by putting fehy before the verb to be negated.
Fehy tide - not eat

TAM things are expressed through a variety of derivations, which are then conjugated again.

Tense
Tense is expressed by attaching a prefix to the verb.
Near past: or- /ɔɹ/
Near future: u- /ɯ/
Distant past: ha- /ha/
Distant future: ui- /wi/

Inchoative/Cessative
The inchoative expresses both beginnings of states and beginnings of actions. (Is there a specific term for this?) The cessative descrives endings of states and actions.They are formed by replacing the normal verb ending with -gu /gɯ/ and -mar /maɹ/, respectively. Their conjugation is irregular:

Inchoative:
Spoiler:
tide > tigu /taj.gu/ to begin eating

1SG: tigat
1DU: tigale
1PL: tigan

2SG: tigur
2DU: tigis
2PL: tigren

3SG: tigure
3DU: tigeve
3PL: tiges
Cessative:
Spoiler:
tide > timar /taj.maɹ/ to stop eating

1SG: timarhes
1DU: timari
1PL: timaren

2SG: timare
2DU: timaret
2PL: timarig

3SG: timarun
3DU: timaras
3PL: timarahe
Causative:
The causative is formed by attaching -yr to the verb, after removing word-final vowels. The noun that is being caused to do something is in the accusative case. It conjugates irregularly:
Spoiler:
tide > tidyr /taj.dyɹ/ to make eat

1SG: tidyre
1DU: tidyru
1PL: tidyry

2SG: tidysan
2DU: tidysdu
2PL: tidysde

3SG: tidyrfe
3DU: tidyrfen
3PL: tidyrfi
Abilitative
As it's apparently called. Japanese has led me astray.
The abilitative expresses an ability to do something. It's formed by adding -il to the verb, after removing word-final a, e, i, o. Unlike the previous ones, it conjugates almost* regularly (for now like class I verbs, might change in the future), but there may be pronunciation irregularities.

*3SG/DU/PL lose the l before attaching ne/ne/ni.

Aretach does not allow the presence of two /aj/ rhymes in adjacent syllables. The syllable on the right will be changed to e if such a thing occurs. Therefore:
Spoiler:
tidil - to be able to eat; urdil - to be able to live
1DU: tidelag, but urdilag
1PL: tidelit, but urdilit
2SG: tidelat, but urdilat
2DU: tideled, but urdiled
2PL: tidelen, but urdilen
3SG/DU: tidene, but urdine
3PL: tideni, but urdine
Passive
The passive is formed by adding -osd to the verb ending. Word-final vowels are removed.
Spoiler:
tide > tideosd - to be eaten

1SG: tidos
1DU: tidon
1PL: tidond

2SG: tidosd
2DU: tidosdu
2PL: tidosge

3SG: tidor
3DU: tidoch
3PL: tidochdur

Stative

I'm not sure if this is the correct term; the stative describes a state of being verbed or a state of verbing. Unlike the previous derivations, this one turns the verb into a pseudo-adjective- they can be used like verbs, but decline like adjectives. It's formed by adding -era- to the verb after removing any word-final vowels, and then attaching the appropriate adjective ending.
Spoiler:
urde (to live) > urdera- to be alive
Adjective endings:
Singular animate: -gy > urderagy
Dual animate: -girg > urderagir
Plural animate: -gyde > urderagyde

Singular inanimate: -gyn > urderagyn
Dual inanimate: -gyng > urderagyng
Plural animate: -gyne > urderagyne

Imperative:

The imperative is formed by adding -hach. Word-final vowels are removed. It's possible to attach 1SG/1DU/1PL to signify from whom exactly the order came.
Spoiler:
tide > tidhach

1SG: tidhache
1DU: tidhachun
1PL: tidhachde
Affix order
Affixes are always ordered in this way:
1. Tense
2. Verb/noun
3. Copula
4. Cessative/Inchoative
5. Causative
6. Abilitative
7. Passive
8. Stative
9. Imperative
10. Person


Examples

Didan fehy onstidvelmaryrilhe.
/ˈdaj.dan ˈfɛ.hi ˈɔn.stɪd.vɛl.ma.ɹy.ˌɪl.hɛ/
ACC.2SG NEG scholar_be.CESS.CAUS.ABIL.1SG
I can't make you stop being a scholar

Dehirkidhy den timarhache!
/dɛ.ˈhiɹ.kajd.hy dɛn ˈtaj.maɹ.ˌha.xɛ/
ACC.pet.PL DEF.ACC.PL eat.CESS.IMP.1SG
Stop eating the pets! (ordered by a single person)

Deglesde fastarore do fehy useluguilag.
/dɛ.ˈglɛs.dɛ fas.ta.ˈɹɔʊ.ɹɛ dɔʊ ˈfɛ.hi ɯ.sɛ.ˈɯ.gwi.lag/
ACC.sword GEN.warrior DEF.ACC NEG FUT(near).transport.INCH.ABIL.1DU
The two of us won't be able to start transporting the warrior's sword.

Herfe o tidor.
/ˈhɛɹ.fɛ ɔʊ taj.dɔɹ/
fish DEF eat.PASS
The fish is eaten.



TBA: Conditional, imperfective
Last edited by Ebon on Sun 02 Oct 2016, 22:45, edited 3 times in total.
Ebon
sinic
sinic
Posts: 431
Joined: Sat 02 Jul 2016, 19:55

Re: Aretach

Post by Ebon » Sun 02 Oct 2016, 22:05

I updated the verbs post. Still not done, alas.

Adjectives

Most Aretach adjectives are derived from nouns by using adjective suffixes. [Currently all adjectives are like that- there will be others in the future.] Adjectives come directly before their respective nouns.

For example, eles (courage) can be turned into the adjective brave by adding:
Singular animate: -ky > elesky
Dual animate: -kirg > eleskirg
Plural animate: -kyde > eleskyne

Singular inanimate: -kyn > eleskyn
Dual inanimate: -kyng > eleskyng
Plural animate: -kyne > eleskyne

If the noun ends in a vowel, -gy etc. are used instead; eshe (wisdom) > wise:
Singular animate: -gy > eshegy
Dual animate: -girg > eshegirg
Plural animate: -gyde > eshegyde

Singular inanimate: -gyn > eshegyn
Dual inanimate: -gyng >eshegyng
Plural animate: -gyne > eshegyne

If the noun ends in a stop, that stop is removed; tared (strength) > strong:
Singular animate: -gy > taregy
Dual animate: -girg > taregirg
Plural animate: -gyde > taregyde

Singular inanimate: -gyn > taregyn
Dual inanimate: -gyng > taregyng
Plural animate: -gyne > taregyne


Adverbs are formed by attaching -ur instead of the above endings. Word-final u, o, i are removed. Even if a stop is removed in the adjective form, it shows in the adverb.
Eshegy (wise) > esheur (wisely)
Halysky (new) > halysur (newly)
Taregy (strong) > taredur (strongly)


When stringing together several adjectives/adverbs that all use the same ending, it's common to remove all but the last ending unless one is speaking very formally.
Brave wise strong person:
Eshegy elesky taregy one > eshe eles taregy one
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