Aretach is a highly agglutinative pro-drop language. Its predominant word order is SOV.
/t d k g p b/ <t d k g p b>
/s z ɕ f v ç x h/ <s z sh f v c ch h>
/m n~ŋ/ <m n>
/l ɹ w/ <l r w>
/a e~ɛ/ <a e>
/ i~ɪ~aj/ <i>
/u~ɯ y/ <u y>
/uj~wi ej/ <ui ei>
- The letters e, i and o are pronounced differently depending on whether they're stressed or unstressed and whether it's an open or closed syllable. The different sounds are considered the same in Aretach.
The general rule is that in open syllable it's /ɔʊ aj/, in closed syllables it's either of the other options.
- n is pronounced /ŋ/ when it precedes /g k/.
- Stress is lexical, but most commonly on the penultimate syllable of the core word before adding any affixes. Stress doesn't change when affixes are added.
- y may be pronounced /i/ when word-final.
Nouns inflect for number (dual, plural) and case (unmarked nominative, accusative, genitive, comitative, locative); case markings reflect noun gender (animate, inanimate) except in the locative. Definite nouns are marked by an article except in the locative; it too reflects number, gender and case. Indefinite nouns don't have an article. Articles follow their nouns; case markers are prefixes.
General case affix rules:
1. Case prefixes fuse with the first vowel if it's the same. Example: adige (roof) > sadige (ACC.roof)
2. Unvoiced stops between two vowels become voiced. (This is generally the case in Aretach.) Example: kagur (forest) > degagur (ACC.forest)
I'm still fiddling with this, but this is what I have for now.
1. Word-final E is removed before the suffix is attached. Example: stire (tree) > stirge/stirdhy (tree.DU/PL)
2. If the word ends with a stop (including those who do after rule 1 is applied), the stop is removed. However, the preceding vowel's pronunciation does not change as a result.
Example: onstide /ˈɔn.staj.dɛ/ (scholar) > onstige/onstidhy /ˈɔn.stɪ.gɛ ˈɔn.stɪd.hy/ (scholar.DU/PL)
3. The D of -dhy is considered a coda if it follows a vowel and may influence pronunciation. Example: ki /kaj/ (house, home) > kidhy /kɪd.hy/ (house.PL)
4. One (person) is an irregular noun; the suffixes are attached as is.
Animate: hire /ˈhaj.ɹɛ/ animal
hire o /ˈhaj.ɹɛ ɔʊ/
hirge og /ˈhɪɹ.gɛ ɔg/
hirdhy ohon /ˈhɪɹd.hy ˈɔʊ.hɔn/
fehire ro /fɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ ɹɔʊ/
fehirge rig /fɛ.ˈhɪɹ.ge ɹɪg/
fehirdhy ren /fɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy ɹɛn/
dehire do /dɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ dɔʊ/
dehirge dyg /dɛ.ˈhɪɹ.ge dyg/
dehirdhy den /dɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy dɛn/
pehire pyr /pɛ.ˈhaj.ɹɛ pyɹ/
pehirge pagy /pɛ.ˈhɪɹ.gɛ ˈpa.gi/
pehirdhy pahon /pɛ.ˈhɪɹd.hy ˈpa.hɔn/
[Other forms omitted]
Inanimate: dohade /dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ/ mouth
dohade e /dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ e/
dohage eg /dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ɛg/
dohadhy en /dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ɛn/
fasdohade re /fas.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ ɹe/
fasdohage rag /fas.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ɹag/
dasdohadhy ran /fas.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ɹan/
sadohade wy /sa.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ wy/
sadohage wug /sa.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ wug/
sadohadhy wahon /sa.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy ˈwa.hɔn/
padohade per /pa.dɔʊ.ˈha.dɛ pɛɹ/
padohage peog /pa.dɔʊ.ˈha.gɛ ˈpe.ɔg/
padohadhy pyn /pa.dɔʊ.ˈhad.hy pyn/
[Other forms omitted]
(Kahe) degagur do egymarhes.
/ˈka.hɛ dɛ.ga.ˈguɹ dɔʊ ɛ.ˈgy.maɹ.hɛs/
1SG ACC.forest DEF.ACC explore.CESS.1SG
I stop exploring the forest.
Eleskir onege og dehyrdhy tidne.
/ˈe.lɛs.kɪɹg ˈɔʊ.nɛ.gɛ ɔg dɛ.ˈhyɹd.hy ˈtɪd.nɛ/
brave.DU.ANIM person.DU DEF.DU ACC.bird.PL eat.3DU
The two brave people eat birds.
Hire kirgavar o hirfagvelne.
/ˈhaj.ɹɛ kɪɹ.ga.ˈvaɹ ɔʊ ˈhɪɹ.fa.gvɛl.nɛ/
animal water.LOC DEF fish_be.3SG
The animal in the water is a fish.
Eshegy onstide deglesde orfulesgure.
/ˈe.ɕɛ.gi ˈɔn.staj.dɛ dɛ.ˈglɛs.dɛ ɔɹ.fu.ˈlɛs.gu.ɹɛ/
wise.SG.ANIM scholar ACC.sword PAST.carry.INCH.3SG
A wise scholar started carrying a sword.
Midnight approaches, so I'll leave it at that for now. I'll be back with verbs soon, I hope.