CBB Conlang Relay IX

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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by cedh » Thu 22 Feb 2018, 09:31

Torch received.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by cedh » Fri 23 Feb 2018, 10:35

cedh wrote:
Thu 22 Feb 2018, 09:31
Torch received.
...translated into Ronc Tyu, and passed on to Frislander.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Frislander » Fri 23 Feb 2018, 14:11

Torch received.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Frislander » Fri 23 Feb 2018, 15:38

Torch passed to Shimo.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by shimobaatar » Fri 23 Feb 2018, 15:57

Received!
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by shimobaatar » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 03:37

Torch returned to kiwikami!

A little under 12 hours… not bad! [:D]
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by kiwikami » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 05:40

Received! (And already translated. I was at home and quite eager.)

Will go through and put together everyone's translations and torches presently. I am extremely curious to see how we got here. From whence came the megaliths? How is it that the maid aged drastically, and multiplied into numerous elders? Why is everyone suffering? Will we ever know?
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by kiwikami » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:15

Putting all the translations/torches together now. In the meantime:

Original Text
A maid servant living alone, in a house not far from the river, had gone upstairs to bed about eleven. Although a fog rolled over the city in the small hours, the early part of the night was cloudless. The lane, which the maid’s window overlooked, was brilliantly lit by the full moon. As she sat, she became aware of an aged, beautiful gentleman with white hair, drawing near along the lane.

Final Version
The moment is right. The elders stand, and they go to the standing megaliths before dawn. A large cloud is lying over their village, but otherwise, it is cold, the sun is shining, and the heavens do not hold other clouds. The elders stand in silence by the coast of the lake; they turn around, and look with their eyes towards a star. With their wisdom, they know the origin of the suffering of the people, the significance of this frightening origin, and the other shining spring* that they search for.

*This is probably also meant to be “source/origin”, but it makes more sense for a concrete object to shine and the “spring/fountain” meaning was provided, so...
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by kiwikami » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:23

All Torches - Part 1

Kiwikami - Ngäliv Ëra (Original Text)
A maid servant living alone, in a house not far from the river, had gone upstairs to bed about eleven. Although a fog rolled over the city in the small hours, the early part of the night was cloudless. The lane, which the maid’s window overlooked, was brilliantly lit by the full moon. As she sat, she became aware of an aged, beautiful gentleman with white hair, drawing near along the lane.

Phöbo kpu ma, ho gäl nme ëne hë ba nmrër'ä ro miarz iër a, khël thua kpau kë, nmen li daha the rä o kah. Vesue äzuu zer'ä, zörö ro miël gbe iër a, zë, ia des zgo gbauä zëra miël zer'ë a, ië. Ia heug ëne ioral uë, tlu kë ha, hahöu ovo a gäl nme hag, ër äl og rë ah. Gäl nme livö i ko, te ai, mutl zer'e ka ii luo ëne a, muahang kë, ia ulo höu, ia tlënm piu i ië ai, heug kpu mah o ië tluis ba rë a.
Spoiler:
Grammar Notes

 VPs consist of a verb followed by a corresponding mood marker. The mood for every VP in the text is the indicative a, which becomes -h if preceded by a word ending in a.

 NPs consists of nouns and corresponding articles depending on their class; if the noun has been previously referred to, the article may be used alone (this happens twice, both in the fourth sentence of the text). The first and last NP arguments of a VP surround the verb and mood marker, respectively, in a circumfix-ish sort of way. A subject noun may or may not be directly preceded or followed by the particles o or i - these may be ignored here, as the definitions given in the glossary for the verbs (which simplifies how voice and valency work) make their purpose irrelevant. If either is preceded by a CV article, the V is dropped and they merge into a single Ci/Co syllable.

 A transitive VP structure is thus:
  Object.Noun - Verb - Object's.Article - (i/o) - Subject.Noun - (i/o) - (Prepositional.Phrases) - a - Subject's.Article

 An intransitive VP is essentially:
  Subject.Noun - Verb - Subject's.Article - (Prepositional.Phrases) - a

 VPs modifying nouns, acting as participles, are in this text marked by the presence of ëne immediately after the noun in question. The VP itself will appear around the noun's article. It may take a separate direct object ("the seeing-a-bird man"), in which case the article is preceded by i or o:
  man - ëne - (bird) - see - (bird's.article) - (i/o) - man's.article - a

 It may also be the case where the modified noun is the direct object ("the seen-by-a-bird man"), which looks like the following:
  man - ëne - see - man's.article - (i/o) - bird - a - bird's.article

 A possessed noun's possessor surrounds its article:
  Noun - Possessor.Noun - Noun's.Article - Possessor's.Article

 Prepositional phrases modifying NPs appear directly before the article.

Glossary

Nouns (and their articles):
 phöbo (ha/h-) - staircase
 gäl nme (ka/-g) - maid or female servant
 nmrër (rä/-'ä) - bedroom
 miarz (ië) - eleven o'clock
 khël (rä) - house
 vesue (rä/-'ä) - city
 daha (the) - river
 zörö (zë) - fog
 miël (ië) - night
 miël gbe (ië) - the wee hours of the morning
 zgo (zë) - cloud
 heug (ha/-h) - street/road/lane
 ër äl og (ha/-h) - the full moon
 hahöu ovo (ha) - window
 ii luo (ië) - gentleman/nobleman

Verbs:
 kpu ma - to traverse (a staircase), go through (a door), or follow (a path)
 thua kpau kë - to live in and be the sole inhabitant of (a place)
 äzuu - to entirely cover up (something)
 gbauä - to lack (something)
 ioral uë - to illuminate (something) brightly
 ioral höu - to be beautiful
 tlu kë - to allow a person to see (something) through oneself / to look out upon (something)
 tlu zer'e/-tl zer'e - to be caught sight of / to be noticed (by something)
 livö - to be sitting down
 muahang kë - to be old
 tlënm piu - to have white hair

Prepositions:
 hë ba - up towards
 ro - while, during
 nmen - far away from
 tluis bag - drawing nearer

Other:
 li - negation for preceding verb or preposition
 te or rë/-r/-'ë - perfective marker, precedes the verb mood (rë may attach as -r or -'ë to the end of a preceding word)
 zer - following a noun, it indicates something that is young or newborn; following a verb, it creates an inchoative "starting to" sense
 ia/-i - and, also (attaches as -i to a preceding indicative marker)
 ia mu/-i mu - and at the same time as this
 des - however
 -ra - plural suffix, attaches to articles
Fluffy8x - Middle Rymakonian
The servant who lives in a house not far away from the river has traversed the stairs toward the bedroom at eleven o'clock. During the wee hours, the fog started to entirely cover up the city, but there were no clouds in the new night. And the servant looked out from the window upon the street illuminated by the moon. When the servant sat down, they were noticed by an old, beautiful gentleman with white hair and followed the street.

.imezim ťmk čazis knkel mukoŋ, n.k mekanma nu n.r krak þhel2 ra tomor; n.k somente mentel přacraŋ, na.ezel konar preme, n.k ryko-.iksra jelťe6 .u traŋ; jan fizeakdi duzo, n.r kstam jel mumukoŋ ro; ptaran mumukoŋ, mzapr-kuta-ckora rkp .is jel ro, n.r duzo cþhiel ro ra;
Spoiler:
## Text

(In this text we use <;> as the period to avoid confusion with <.> /ʔ/).

## Phonology

The language uses phonoruns. The following defined categories are used:

Category (op) | Phonemes
---------------+-----------------------------------------
Full-open (2) | a e i o u v ð z ẑ ž ħ ż j w 5 6
Half-open (1) | y r l m n ñ ŋ 7
Neutral (0) | s ŝ ṡ vħ ðħ vž 1 2
Half-closed (-1) | f š h ř 8
Full-closed (-2) | þ fh þh fš p b t d ť ď k g c č . 3 4

These are converted to actual categories as follows:
* Full-open and full-closed phonemes are always realised as open and closed,
respectively.
* Half-open phonemes are open unless the previous phoneme is full-closed.
* Half-closed phonemes are closed unless the previous phoneme is full-open.
* Neutral phonemes that do not occur word-initially inherit the actual
category of the phoneme before it.
* Neutral phonemes that occur word-initially are closed.

A phonorun is a maximal sequence of phonemes that are either all open or all
closed within a word.

In general, a word with n spoken phonemes can have at most ceil(n/2)
phonoruns. If this constraint is violated, the following rules are applied
in succession until it is not (X: spoken phoneme; R: rod signal; i. e. one of
<1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8>):

X1[do]X2[dc]R[do] -> X2X1R
X1[dc]X2[do]R[dc] -> X2X1R
X1[dc]X2[do]ʔX3[do] -> X1ʔX2X3
X1[do]ʔX2[do]X3[dc] -> X1X2ʔX3
X1[op≥0]X2[dc]X3[do]X4[op≤0] -> X1X3X2X4 [X1.op + X3.op - X2.op - X4.op ≥ 6]
X1[op≤0]X2[do]X3[dc]X4[op≥0] -> X1X3X2X4 [X2.op + X4.op - X1.op - X3.op ≥ 6]

If the constraint is still violated, the following rules are executed in
parallel repeatedly until it is resolved or a fixed point is reached:

X1[do]X2[dc]X3[do] -> X1X3X2
X1[dc]X2[do]X3[dc] -> X2X1X3

NB:
* /ʔ/ = <.>
* do is short for op > 0; dc is short for op < 0
* Rules move right to left.
* The same rule can occur multiple times in a word, but matches may not
intersect each other.
* Rules do not match across compound boundaries.

This process will hereafter be called phonorun reduction.

Vowel harmony: <i e> are front, <u o> are back and <a y> are neutral.
A word with only neutral vowels is front, unless it has the (b) marker in
PoS.

## Grammar

Basic word order is XVSO, but if S or O is a conjunctional phrase or receives
an oblique argument, then it precedes the verb. An oblique argument is
represented by a prepositional phrase, unless it is a conjunctional phrase
or receives an oblique of its own, in which case it uses a postposition.

Countable nouns have two numbers: nondual and dual. The dual applies only to
pairs, and not any two objects (at least in the standard dialect). Each
countable noun has an inherent number (inherently dual nouns have a "-d-"
after "n" listed as the PoS). Using the non-inherent number requires a
marking. (Measurable and uncountable nouns do not have number.)
Nouns can also be in nominative or accusative case. If S and O are both
present in that order, then they are both declined for nominative. Otherwise,
S gets nominative and O gets accusative.
Nouns can also be definite, in which case the first syllable (without the
coda) is reduplicated.
Nouns also have one of six classes.

Declensions (BEFORE PHONORUN REDUCTION):
(For countable classes, this table shows only the declensions for front-vowel
nouns. For back-vowel nouns, exchange -e <> -o and -i <> -u.)
| Direct | Inverse |
Class | Nom Acc | Nom Acc |
---------------+-----------------+-----------------+
Sentient | - -n | -l -nal |
(sent) | -C -zin | -l -ril |
Nonsentient | - -m | -.i -vi |
(nonsent) | -C -zim | -.i -vi |
Measure | - -n +-----------------+
(meas) | -C -zin |
Edible | - -n |
(edib) | -C -nin |
Inedible | - -be |
(ined) | -C -Cpe |
Abstract | - -iŋ |
(abst) | -C -C*iŋ | <- If C is a fricative or lateral fricative
---------------+-----------------+ then voice
Also change <k t> to <ť tš> before <i>.

Personal pronouns are not divided into first, second and third persons.
Instead, they fall into six categories that exhibit different behaviour
depending on whether they occur as the first non-oblique noun in the clause
or elsewhere:

* Near: as 1st, speaker; elsewhere, 1st non-oblique argument of the clause
* Far: as 1st, listener; elsewhere, the person with which 1st arg is
conversing
* Other: as 1st, a 3rd entity; elsewhere, an entity that is neither the
speaker, the listener nor the 1st argument
* Generic: a generic entity (akin to "one")
* Anaphoric subject: subject of previous clause. Used on a verb in a clause
with obliques or conjunctions.
* Anaphoric object: object of previous clause.

The pronouns are thus (before PR):

| Nominative | Accusative |
Person | non-dual dual | non-dual dual |
-------------+---------------------+---------------------+
Near | ta fizi | tan fizen |
Far | po bra | pon bran |
Other | ni tazi | nin tazen |
Anaph. Sub. | ra ñiri | ran ñiren |
Anaph. Obj. | ro ñuro | ron ñuron |
Generic | .u | .un |
-------------+---------------------+---------------------+

Two nouns or a noun and a descriptor can be compounded in a head-initial
manner.

The construction <Y=ma X> (plus PR) is used to express <X's Y> or <X, which is
Y>. If X is a numeral, then it means <the Xth Y>.

Verbs are conjugated as such (before PR):

Person | Nonpast | Past |
-------------+----------+----------+
1st conjugation |
-------------+----------+----------+
Near | -an | -at |
Far | -an | -ys |
Other | -a | -y |
Anaph. Sub. | -e | -el |
Anaph. Obj. | -i.e | -i.el |
Generic | -i | -i |
-------------+----------+----------+
2nd conjugation |
-------------+----------+----------+
Near | -an | -at |
Far | -an | -ys |
Other | -a | -y |
Anaph. Sub. | -o | -ol |
Anaph. Obj. | -u.o | -u.ol |
Generic | -u | -u |
-------------+----------+----------+
3rd conjugation |
-------------+----------+----------+
Near | -in | -it |
Far | -an | -ys |
Other | -a | -y |
Anaph. Sub. | -e | -el |
Anaph. Obj. | -i.e | -i.el |
Generic | -y | -y |
-------------+----------+----------+

After this comes the polarity-tellicity suffixes:

| + | - | ? |
-------+--------+--------+--------+
Telic | - | -ťe | -ha |
Atelic | -mi/mu | -sa | -šy |
-------+--------+--------+--------+

Verbs can also be marked for aspect. The aspects used in this text are:

* Perfect <-2> Already finished
* Unexpected <-6> Action is unexpected ("but")

A rod signal attached to a word reverts <þ ð> into <þh ðħ>, and it might
affect phonorun reduction.

A preposition can be negated with the prefix <ť->.

Descriptors are declined for verbal person of their antecedents (before PR and
respecting vowel harmony):

Person | Suffix |
------------+--------+
(nouns) | -a |
Near | -ar |
Far | -ar |
Other | -er/or |
Anaph. Sub. | -ar |
Anaph. Obj. | -er/or |
Generic | -ir/ur |
------------+--------+

Note that a final <-s> or <-z> becomes <-ŝ> or <-ẑ> in the generic form.

## Lexicon

.iksr- (desc) new, next
.imen (nnonsent) house
.is (nabst) grey -> grey
ciþh- (v1) (S) follows (O)
ckor- (desc) handsome, beautiful
čazis (nnonsent) river
duzo (nnonsent) pathway, street, road
fizekadi (nabst) moonlight
j- (v1) (S) sees (O), because, (S) illuminates (O)
knk- (v1) (S) lives in (O)
kon- (desc) entire, complete
krak (nnonsent) stairs
kstam (nnonsent) window
kut- (desc) old
mekan (nmeas) hour
mk (pp) far away from
mukoŋ (nsent) servant
mzapr (nsent) nobleman, gentleman
n.k (pp) in, on, at (time)
n.r (pp) through
na.ez- (v3) (S) covers, spans (O)
nu (nabst) eleven
patr- (v1) (S) sits at (O)
preme (nnonsent) city
přacraŋ (nnonsent) mist, fog
rkp (pp) with (colour) hair
ryko (nabst) nighttime
somente (nabst) dawn, wee hours
tomor (nnonsent) bedroom
traŋ (nnonsent) cloud
þh (pp) toward
Reyzadren - griuskant
The assistant stays at the house near the river during the 4th day part through the stairs, going towards the said bedroom. The whole town does some external inclusivity during the morning twilight mist. Then, one suddenly would have seen the cloud during the next night. The moonlight lights up the path. The assistant sees the path through the said window. The assistant sits. The old beautiful lord with grey hair sees a thingamajig. It follows the lord through the path.

Image
roese ounda vuzh raib shaein thael vozh 4ae gautulg zhol lend oeza oev tridcol. uvaen kaeir ovuvza vozh nilithwughik. zher, es skendi jiskat bruap vozh skansxaush shuig. tharjuig jaeda tung. roese jiska tung zhol oev doyaesk. roese paeda. uarki diougi jilk vaezh ploui ren jiska ev. raes hiraeia jilk zhol tung.
Spoiler:
See below for suffixes.

roesa; help
ounda; stay
vuzh; at
raib; house
shaein; near
thael; river
vozh; during
gau; day
tulg; part
zhol; through
lend; stairs
oez; intra prefix
oev; said
trida; sleep
col; room
uvaen; whole
kaeir; town
ov; inter prefix
uvzaei; also
nilith; morning
wug; twilight
hik; mist
zher; then
es; 4SG
skendi; suddenly
jiska; see
bruap; cloud
skans; front
xaush; next
shuig; night
thar; moon
juig; light
jaeda; lit
tung; path
doyaesk; window
paeda; sit
uarki; old
diougi; beautiful
jilk; lord
vaezh; with
ploui; grey
ren; hair
ev; some
raes; 3SG
hiraeia; follow

+e; source noun
+ae; possessive
+a; verb suffix
+i; adjective suffix
+t; phasal TAM

[Conlang blurb]
Griuskant is a conlang for a fictional world. It has agglutinative morphology, SVO word order, direct trigger alignment, head-final phrases and an alphabetic conscript. Other features include affixations, prepositions, regular stress, no definiteness and no agreement conjugations.
loglorn - Proto-Kame
The helper was staying inside the bedroom at the house near the river at night. The whole tribe was inside during the dawn mists. Then they suddenly saw clouds during the following night. The moon lit the path, the helper saw it through the window. The helper sat. An old beautiful chief saw something. He followed the chief through the path.

jydte nenjii nöo lopabo jöo nöy luke gyo nöo jut. nöestur jyri nöjii nöo lhyjöe nööm nöpikdabli jydti ola, nömilhiohon dablu nööm krio jut sohutö. nököluilkö nönop tolbyn, jydte nenakuohon nööm akbyn. jydte nenokei. budu mebi möjy nenmilhiin uztu, nensahiohon mebu nönop tolbyn.
Spoiler:
EXPLANATION STUFF
Proto-Kame is an agglutinative language. It is SVO, adjectives may follow or precede the noun, although they more usually precede it. More than two vowels in a row is not allowed, so whenever three or more vowels would occur in sequence due to morphological reasons, they are separated by an epenthetic h between the second and the third vowels. Proto-Kame is extremely pro-drop, subject and object marking in verbs being sufficient in most cases, there aren’t any actual free pronouns in this text. Adverbs are usually placed at the end of the clause.

VERBS
In this text, only tense inflection and polypersonal agreement appear. Weather verbs always have third person neuter subject and reflexive object affixes.
SUBJ prefix – ROOT – Tense – OBJ suffix

Subject Prefixes that show up:
nen third person male
nö third person neuter

Tense suffixes:
i past
oo posterior

The posterior is used to mean that the event occurred after a reference, usually the previous sentence.

ADPOSITIONS
Adpositions agree with their dependents, which they precede, using the same subject prefixes found in verbs for doing so.

NOUNS
Nouns inflect only for case. There is no number distinction whatsoever. Nouns are nominative after propositions. If the noun root ends in a vowel, this vowel is deleted when the case suffix is applied.
Poss affix - ROOT – Case affix

Case affixes:
u Accusative
i Genitive
o Locative

POSSESSION
The possessor follows the possessed. Possession in Proto-Kame is double marked, the possessed takes a subject prefix (same as the verbal ones) that agrees with the possessor, while the possessor receives the genitive case.

GLOSSARY
akbyn – n. opening, window
aku – v. open
budu – adj. old
dabli – n. cloud
estur – n. man, person
gyo – n. river
ji – v. existential verb
jöe – n. house
jut – n. night
jydte – n. dawn
jydte – n. helper
jyrö – n. tribe
kölu – v. to shine (of the moon) (weather verb)
krio – adj. next, following
lopabo – n. bedroom
luke – adj. close (proximity)
mebi – n. chief
milhi – v. see
möjy – adj. beautiful
nop – adp. over
o – adp. under, inside
oke – v. sit
ola – adv. all
öm – adp. through, during
pikdabli – n. mist
sahi – v. follow
sohutö – adv. suddenly
tolbyn – n. path
uzti – n. something
y – adp. with

PROTO-KAME GLOSSED

jydte nenjii nöo lopabo jöo nöy luke gyo nöo jut.
helper 3m-EXIST-PST 3n-under PLACE-sleep-CIRC house-LOC 3n-with close(proximity) river 3n-under night
The helper was staying inside the bedroom at the house near the river at night.

nöestur jyri nöjii nöo lhyjöe nööm nöpikdabli jydti ola,
3n-person town-GEN 3n-EXIST-PST 3n-under REFL-house 3n-through 3n-mist dawn-GEN all
The whole tribe was inside during the dawn mists.

nömilhiohon dablu nööm krio jut sohutö.
3n-see-PSTR-3n cloud-ACC 3n-through next night suddenly
Then they suddenly saw clouds during the following night.

nököluilkö nönop tolbyn, jydte nenakuohon nööm akbyn.
3n-moon.shine-PST-REFL 3n-over path | helper 3m-see-PSTR-3n 3n-through opening
The moon lit the path, the helper saw it through the window.

jydte nenokei.
helper 3m-sit-PST
The helper sat.

budu mebi möjy nenmilhiin uztu,
old chief beautiful 3m-see-PST-3n something-ACC
An old beautiful chief saw something.

nensahiohon mebu nönop tolbyn
3m-follow-PSTR-3m chief-ACC 3n-over path
He followed the chief through the path.
DzêtaRedfang - Atruozan
A helper was inside a bedroom of a house near a river at night. All the tribe’s people had been inside their houses during the dawn’s mist when they suddenly saw a cloud at night. The helper had opened a window when the moon shone on the path. The helper sat. He had followed the chief over the path, the old beautiful chief saw something.

.grø̃ñëgä anamuivtø øcmirk serẽñëdä dohunñëdädø̃ yo tøserẽñëdäbëjdø̃ yã këkmañöga. serẽñëdä' tö imrus ryäñäëkpëx' þüƀä ivëxodörg fegeujukiürldërgbø̃; sønicmøþe, bä' öyavikã wãivkwë tä grø̃ñëgä. te anamuivtø ëxlängyë ëxlänäke, kocuko tä lhif ãŕofñöga. te anamuivtø ileoro. öyavike xãiyë obrämøkä yã fläbmøkä eu üþmøkä dorëpkwë, bä bë floyäkä tõn ãŕofbödoi.
Spoiler:
Atruozan is a highly synthetic, predominantly fusional language. It’s word order is S > O, meaning that in non-interrogative clauses, the subject must come before the object of the sentence, with no care given as to the location of the verb. This order inverts in interrogative clauses. Due to an extensive morphology accounting for most of the grammatical weight, aside from that ordering, word order is generally free, with the final word of the clause generally being the one with the most focus, and that emphasis/focus diminishing as you move backwards through the clause’s arguments.

VERBS
Atruozan verbs tend to be constructed through the affixation of the verbal affixes on nominal roots. This does come with exceptions, of course, some of which so appear in the text. Verbs take a TAM suffix that conjugates for one of five moods, a maximum of eight aspect-tenses, 3 persons, and 2 numbers, as well has having three deverbal forms and two derivational ones. It can also take a prefixes for habituality, of which there are two types, and negation. This is all done for five distinct verb classes, which each convey information and can drastically affect the meaning of the verb.

Due to the extensive case system, it is also common to drop the verb whenever possible, however this is not truly seen in the text. If the verb itself is a root, the stem will be its infinitive form without the final –Vl, where V is the “class” vowel that will be discussed shortly.

Found within the text only a small handful TAM suffixes appear, along with both derivational affixes.
Intensifier- NEG- HAB- root –TAM –derivational suffix

Verb Classes:
There are 5 verb classes:
ÄL (other/common verbs)
ËL (creation/destruction verbs)
IL (survival verbs)
OL (intransitive, motion, and change of state verbs)
ÜL (abstract and weather verbs)

Only when using the ÜL class may the pronoun be dropped as they are the only class that only conjugates for one person and number : 3rd person singular (is more of a 5th pers. singular). Provided there is no large change of meaning (ex: fnan-ël “to kill” vs. fnan-ol “to die”), when a verb is used intransitively, the OL class is utilised. The first (and occasionally second) vowel of the suffix is telling of the class in use.

Tense-Aspect-Mood suffixes that appear:
All suffixes that appear are in the Indicative mood, which is utilised in matrix clauses to demonstrate epistemic certainty. All individual forms due to class change will be listed below:
-äke : ÄL Indicative perfect (past.perfective) 3rd pers. singular
-äkä : ÄL Ind. pluperfect 3rd pers. sing.
-ike : IL Ind. perf. 3rd pers. sing.
-ikã : IL Ind. perf. 3rd pers. plural
-irk : IL Ind. imperfect (past.imperfective) 3rd pers. sing.
-oro : OL Ind. perf. 3rd pers. sing.
-uko : OL Ind. pluperf. 3rd pers. sing.
-uki : ÜL Ind. pluperf. 3rd pers. sing.

The pluperfect denotes a past anterior action (an action that had already occurred further in the past than the matrix clause’s past action). For example : “I had already eaten when she called”.

Derivational suffixes:
Derivational suffixes include the Agentive and Nominaliser suffixes. The former acts to create an animate noun from the verb, and functions similarly to the “-er” suffix in the English word “kicker”. As a noun it may then take case suffixes after it. The later is used in relative time specifications (“before the time of the killing”, for example, would be “POSTE kill-NMZ-LOC.IN” in its simplest gloss), in complement clauses when the tense is non-present and/or when there is more than a single verb constituting it, as well as in comparative constructions between verb phrases, although the latter two are not seen in the text. Its usage forms an inanimate noun.

What is important to note, especially with the nominaliser, is that you are able to conjugate a verb with a TAM suffix before deriving it, which is commonly used as a way to convey the time of the occurrence being described. For example, “kill-IND.PERF.3S-NMZ” would mean “a killing that had occurred in the past”. This usage does show up in the text, and it would be good to note that should this convey the tense of the clause, and the cases used cover the meaning of the verb, the verb both can and will be dropped from the sentence, even if it is in a non-present tense. There are only two derivational suffixes that appear:
-iv : IL Agentive
-ürl : ÜL Nominaliser

ADJECTIVES
Adjectives can be formed through derivational affixes from nouns, or can be roots in some cases, with nouns being then being formed through derivational affixes on them. This latter seen several times in the text. Adjectives always follow the noun, as do numerals which behave exactly as adjectives, and agree with the noun in gender and number. Adjectives are by nature inanimate, and thus don’t take a suffix when agreeing with a singular inanimate noun. There is a strict adjectival order which can change the meaning of an adjective, and will thus be listed in full below. The suffix that appears is:
-kä : Front Class animateliser (makes the root word animate, glossed “ANZ”)

Back and Front Class:
Adjectives, like nouns, are classified as being either Back Class or Front Class based on the last vowel or diphthong of the root (or in the case of a nominalised/agentive verb, the last vowel before nominalisation). This causes the affixes used to either be “back suffixes” in which the back set of vowels is utilised, or “front vowels” in which the front set is utilised. Nominal and adjectival suffixes thus come in pairs, however only the front class is represented in the adjectival suffixes in the text.

Adjectival order/Adjectival Classes:
Following a noun, this order, which comprises of 13 “slots” or “classes” is the order in which all adjectives must follow the noun. Changing the class of an adjective can and will change its meaning and interpretation. The order is as follows:
1) Numeral
2) Colour
3) Size
4) Visual descriptors
5) Shape
6) State of being
7) Abstract (ex: I feel cold)
8) Touch descriptors
9) Tangencies (visible, ghostly, material)
10) Emotions
11) Type of being (divine, mortal, etc.)
12) Relative clauses
13) Predicative adjectives
Within this order, classes 4 through 8 form a block wherein aside from the Class 4, if there is not an adjective of the previous class within the Noun Phrase, one of the following four particles (which have other usages that will be touched upon later) is used and placed before the adjective within its associated class:
ya : Class 5
yã : Class 6
yo : Class 7
yø̃ : Class 8

Derivational affixes found in the text:
Adjectives can be derived into nouns, or adverbs. In the text, all three cases are seen. The suffixes seen are the following:
-mu : Back Class Nominaliser
-þe : Front Class Adverbialiser (adverbs formed in this manner affect the clause’s verb)

All adverbs, be they roots or formed through the suffix above, must go before the clause or phrase whose main verb it modifies, separated by a comma. In the instances of it appearing between two clauses or phrases, a semi-colon is employed before it (this does not hold true for relative clauses, but they do not appear in the text). Should an adverb be modifying an adjective, the word must first be an adjective, following which it will follow the adjective it’s modifying, while also agreeing with the head noun. It is then separated from the modified adjective by the following preposition:
eu : adverbialiser (when the adverb modifies an adjective)

NOUNS
Nouns in Atruozan can decline for any of 13 cases, with a secondary construct state (CNS) suffix existing in case another case is in use. They can also decline for number and one of 4 genders, and can derive into adjectives if needed. They also serve as the root for most verbs. They also take can take prepositions to combine with cases, as well as having determiners for definite nouns, as well as plural indefinites (singular indefinites have no determiner).
Intensifier- root –case suffix –CNS –ADJZ -PL

Gender:
In Atruozan, each noun is inherently belonging to one of four genders: animate, inanimate, masculine, and feminine. Each of these genders of noun decline with different suffixes, and the root of the noun can be “derived” through these suffixes into a new gender, from which point on any new suffixes would have to use that root gender’s suffixes.
For instance, the root for dog is “cwega” and is animate. If I wanted to specify that this dog is female, and it was the subject of the sentence, I would use the animate nominative “feminiser” suffix:
cwega-cu
dog(AN)-NOM.FEMZ
The name and extra “Z” at the end of the glossings for the gender changes caused by these suffixes is in analogy to the glossing and naming conventions for adverbialiser, adjectiviser, nominaliser, verbaliser, etc. affixes, as much like result of the usage of an adjectiviser is the changing of a root from say, a noun to an adjective, the result of the usage of a feminiser suffix is the changing of the gender of the stem from animate to feminine.

Case suffixes:
In the text, only six cases appear. These are found across three genders, feminine being inexistent in the text. If a noun has no suffix on it, it means that it is both nominative and the original inherent gender of the noun. The suffixes are as follows, with 1 meaning the voiceless plosive nearest the PoA of the first consonant of the stem, and 2 being the same except for voiced plosives:
-1ø : Animate Front Class Nominative masculiniser (MASCZ)
-kwë : An. F.C Accusative animataliser (ANZ)
-pëx : An. F.C Nominative construct state ANZ
-gyë : Inanimate F.C Accusative inanimataliser (INZ)
-bëj : Inan. F.C Nominative construct state INZ
-2ø̃ : Inan. F.C Construct state INZ
-ñë2ä : Inan. F.C Locative INZ
-ñö2a : Inan. Back Class Locative INZ
-dërg : Inan. F.C Ablative INZ
-dörg : Inan B.C Ablative INZ
-bödoi : Inan B.C Prolative INZ

The cases each have the ability to combine with prepositions to offer a larger variety of expressed cases (the prepositions go before the determiners); however, these are largely optional, and the meaning of the given case is usually determined through the sentence itself and context, thus there only being two instances of preposition-case combinations in the text.

The Cases and what they cover:
NOM — Nominative
ACC — Accusative
CNS — Construct State
LOC — Locative, Inessive, Antessive, Postessive, Temporal
ABL — Ablative, Elative, Lative, Initiative, Causal
PROL — Prolative, Superessive, Supralative, Subessive, Subelative, Perlative

Locative Case:
The locative functions as a catch-all when to both spatial and temporal location. It can function as a general locative does for specifying spatial location and relation, or it can be used to specify a time or date, and the relation to that. For instance, “night-LOC” would be interpreted as “at night”, whereas “house-LOC” could mean either being in or near or on the house, making context important.

Ablative case:
The Ablative case generally keeps for theme, and does very much so in this text, of movement away from a given reference point. Thus “city-ABL” would be “moving away from a city”, most commonly. The ablative tends to keep this base meaning throughout the text, with the exception of its temporal usage, which is used to talk about a duration of time. This is a preposition-case combo, and expresses “while” or “during”: LAT x-ABL.

Prolative case:
The prolative expresses movement by way of something most commonly; however, in the text one of its preposition-case combinations takes place. Ignoring the perlative, this case takes one of two prepositions, one meaning roughly “above”, and the other “under”. The former is used in the text, and limits the case expressed to two: superessive (location on top of) and supralative (movement over). The distinction between these two is entirely based on context.

Possession:
In Atruozan, the possessor comes before the possessee, which is marked with the construct state suffix. By this method, you can easily chain many possessors together. The nominative construct state suffix (-pëx/-bëj) are only used when there is not another case suffix on the noun (aka the head noun is the subject). The exception to this rule is when a noun is possessed by two different possessors at the same time, in which case the nominative CNS suffix is used first, followed by the plainer CNS suffix, regardless of what case the noun is in due to potential previous suffixes.

This scenario of marking two possessors on a head noun is due to external possessors, such as the rice in “his bowl of rice”. In these situations, the bowl, being the head of the phrase, comes last, with the external possessor coming immediately before it, the two separated by the particle “yo”, whose other usages will be explored later. Both the external possessor and the original one are owned by him in this sentence, thus they both take a CNS suffix, with the bowl taking a second one because of the external possession from the rice. All pronouns must also be in the disjunctive to be a possessor. The case of the head noun is also marked on all possessors except for pronouns.

Ex: 3S.DSJV rice-ABL-CNS yo bowl-ABL-CNS.NOM-CNS
“his bowel of rice”

Number:
If a noun, adjective, or pronoun is plural, it takes the following suffix:
-’ : plural

Number is mainly expressed through the use of determiners, which come before the noun and agree in number, definiteness, and gender. Possessed nouns may take a determiner before all of its possessors, with only prepositions coming before them.

Derivational suffixes:
A noun can be derived into an adjective through the use of a suffix, the adjective then become the base adjectival inanimate gender. The suffix found in the text is:
-mø : Front Class Adjectiviser

PARTICLES
The adjective class particles have more usages, but for the purposes of this, only the non-adjectival usage of “yo” and “yã” in the tex twill be discussed. The former of these two is used in this case to show the relation between the external possessor and the possessee, such that they are considered as a single entity being possessed by the preceding possessor. The latter is employed in a similar fashion, except that the later shows the relation between two nouns, mainly one that’s either nominative, accusative or dative, and one that’s any of the other cases, so that it affects and modifies the noun, rather than the verb. These particles go between the two nouns/noun phrases that are being put in relation to one another.

INTENSIFIERS
Effectively any noun, adjective, adverb, or verb, can take one of the intensifier prefixes. It depends mainly on context and the nature of the affected stem as to what the augmentative and diminutive prefixes specifically modifies about the root, be it size, age, strength, authoritative status, etc… Only one prefix shows up in the text (1 being the voiceless plosive nearest to the root’s first consonant’s point of articulation):
-1ø : Diminutive

PRONOUNS
Pronouns in Atruozan must stay in a given order directly before the verb for the most part, however, the disjunctive pronoun can be found anywhere. The order, as far as it concerns the text, is:
1)Nominative
2)Accusative

The third person pronouns only declines for animate and inanimate genders outside of the disjunctive. To make it plural, it takes the same suffix as nouns and adjectives, as was previously mentioned.

GLOSSARY
ana – adj. kind
ãŕof – n.in. trail
bä – pron. nominative 3.AN (3rd pers. animate)
bë – pron. accusative 3.AN
dohun – n.in. sleep
dorëp – n.an. thing
ëxlän – n.in. opening
ëxlän – n.in. window
ëxlän – n.in. hole
fegeuj – n.in. mist
fläb – n.an. blood
floyäl – v.äl. to follow
grø̃ – n.in. night
ileol – v.ol. to sit
imrus – n.an. tribe
ivëxo – n.in. dawn
këkma – n.in. river
koc – n.in. shine
lhif – n.an. moon
obrä – n.an. elder
øcmil – v.il. to be (copula)
öyav – n.an. eye
ryäñäëk – n.an. person
serẽ – n.in. house
sønic – n.in. speed
tä – det. definite inanimate sg.
te – det. definite masculine sg.
tö – det. definite animate pl.
tõn – adp. over, above
üþ – n.in. heat
wãiv – n.an. cloud
xãiyë – n.an. chief
þüƀä – adp. lative case
Iyionaku - Caelian
At a night, a kind man was in a bedroom of a house next to the river. In the houses during the mist of dawn, suddenly the tribesmen saw a cloud at night. The kind man opened a window, and the moon shone at a trail. The old, angry chief saw this because he had followed him on the trail.

Parrapiw map, bordyek hüvron mo pornalyem vportabyun zavjëmiz sibyäis. Vporatalyen mattapis süggyavap dutya folanyen lyondijes pontapir tarbuil mang sivüperlin parrapiw. Bordyek hüvron nakruily mang sikyapüdbic zewy sallyen barnosej mas sibürkis. Hiznyen püttiz tyütrih Dyong sivüplin byol Tat Tonoc tibyäis hök barnagej.
Spoiler:
Caelian is an agglutinative, nonconcatenative Nom-Acc language. Nouns, Verbs, most adjectives and adverbs derived from adjectives are formed out of quadriliteral roots. Pronouns, few adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, postpositions and particles are independent and don’t follow a root. The vocabulary below is divided into those two types of words for convenience.

Syntax
The basic word order is SOV. However, most of the syntax is relatively free; the only hard rule is that the highest-ranked object (mostly the noun in accusative case) directly precedes the verb. Adjectives, numerals, indefinite articles and possessors always follow nouns, adverbs follow their verbs. There are postpositions exclusively. In imperative sentences, the word order is fixed SVO.

Relative clauses are marked with a relative pronoun tö and follow the noun they modify, except it is the highest ranked object, in that case they follow the verb (this is the case in the only relative clause occurring!).

Root words
All root words are formed from the pattern (C)VCCV(C). A root is entered to the dictionary in the form *C-CC-C. The digraphs by, dy, gy, py, ty, ky, ny, ly, wy, ng, vp count as one consonant. Example: *z-fn-wy – water, wet, be wet

Nouns
Nouns follow the pattern C{a/o/i}CC{case}C. {a/o/i} marks the gender of a noun (masculine/feminine/neuter); adjectives and pronouns follow the gender of the noun. {case} marks a case infix. There are 28 cases altogether in Caelian (although you could see most of them as inpositions), but besides the five primary cases I’ll only list the ones that actually occur. Adjectives and pronouns have different (but related) case endings. The cases are listed further below.

There are three numbers: Singular (unmarked), definite Plural and indefinite plural. The definite plural follows the pattern C{a/o/i}C-a-C{case}C, the indefinite plural follows the pattern C{ai/oi/i}C-ü-C{case}C. There is no definite article, but an indefinite: ma/mo/mi. The indefinite plural is used for unknown amounts of something as well as in a collective sense, but it doesn't occur in the text.

Demonstration is marked with umlaut of the gender vowel: a->ä, o->ö, i->ije.

Adjectives
Adjectives follow the pattern C-ü-CC{a/o/i}C, where a/o/i marks the gender of the modified noun. The comparative is marked with a particle ës after the adjective. Superlative also features that particle, but additionally has an infix –ul- between the two mid consonants. Adjectives follow their noun in gender, case and number. Plural is marked with –a-, like nouns. Collective is unmarked. The case endings differ (see below).

Few adjectives (called „original adjectives“ sometimes) are not derived from a root. Those adjectives are not inflected and are stated in the section „non-root-words“. Therefore, you should always look for a lexeme first in the non-roots section and then in the roots section.

Derived adverbs
Adverbs can be derived form adjectives (as in most languages). In that case, they follow the pattern C-ü-CC{api/opi/epi}C. The gender depends on the gender of the verb’s subject. Otherwise, those adverbs behave exactly like adjectives.

Case
The first stated affix is the noun infix, the second is the adjective and pronoun suffix (also used for certain adverbs; you will find out). Indefinite articles only feature the last consonant of a case, this is the third stated affix. If not stated otherwise, the cases have the usually assigned meaning. The following cases occur:

Nominative case: -e-; unmarked for adjectives and pronouns
Accusative case: -ui-; -ung; -ng
Dative case: -u-; -as; -s
Genitive case: -ije- or –ibye; -ib; -Ø
Instrumental case: -o-; -ob; -b

Adessive case: -ëmi-; -ëm; -m
Allative case: -ocu-; -oc; -c (together with the verb byanglis and the continuative particle 'hök', it means "to follow")
Elative case: -abyu-; -ab; -b (not only movement out of something, but also for a "part - whole" relationship; the noun in the elative case is the whole)
Inessive case: -alye-; -aly; -ly
Perlative case: -age-; -ak; -k
Sublative case: -ose; -os; -s
Terminative case: -api-; -ap; -p (expressing the termination of an action, roughly “after”, but also the general time of an action; together with the postpositon 'dutye', it means "during")

Verbs
Verbs are highly introflected and follow both subject and highest-ranked object. (Can be an adverbial object too!) The following table shows the verb regular pattern:

Image

There are a few assimilation rules that occur during inflection. If you cannot spot a root that seems to fit, look if one of the assimilation rules has taken place. They are as follows:

1. <by py dy ty gy ky ny ly j> change to <b p d t g k n l Ø> before <i> or a palatal infix
2. <bVb pVp dVd tVt gVg kVk> change to <bVm pVm dVn tVn gVng kVng>
3. <mVm nVn ngVng> change to <bVm dVn gVng>
4. <hVh rVr lVl> change to <nVh rVh lVh>
5. Case endings with palatals are depalatalized (see rule 1) when the root ends on -j

There are a few more but they are rarer and don't occur in the text.

If a verb is intransitive, it is inflected as if its object would be 2SG. (Second column, so)
It might be a little complicated, but I don’t think you’ll have a big problem with it, as the sentence roles are already determined by the noun cases.

There is an irregular verb, byanglis, that not only has non-predictable forms, but also various meanings depending on noun case. I will list all occurring forms in the vocabulary section for your convenience.
Tense, aspect and mood are shown by prefixes on the verb. The following prefixes occur in the text:

Ø-: present tense
si-: past tense
ti-: pre-past tense (like past perfect)
kya-: inchoative aspect
sikya-: past inchoative

Some other moods instead appear as suffixes. They are listed in the dictionary, if they occur.

Pronouns
All pronouns are capitalized, so they are easily distinguishable. Except for accusative, genitive, dative and instrumental case, the pronouns get the same case affixes as adjectives. The primary case endings are somewhat similar to adjective endings (e.g. all accusative forms end in –ng), but there are some assimilation processes. I think you will find out; if you have problems don’t hesitate to write me a message.

Vocabulary

Roots (Gender in brackets)

b-rdy-k [m.] - man, male, to be male
b-rk-s [f.] - sun, to shine, shining
b-rn-j [f.] - mission, path, to go
f-lny-n [m.] - human, people, to live together
h-vr-n [n.] - friend, to help each other, to support, loyal, friendly, kind, supportive
h-zny-n [n.] - leader, operator, handler, head (of sth.), chef, chief, boss etc.
ly-nd-s [m.] - village, tribe, army, people
m-tt-s [f.] - morning, to rise, to start shining, to get up, to start
n-ln-l [f.] - luck, to be lucky
n-kr-ly [f.] - window, round hole, to look out
p-dby-c [f.] - path, open way, to open, opened, unblocked
p-nt-r [m.] - time, to spend time, sudden
p-rn-m [m.] - bedroom
p-rr-w [f.] - night, dark
p-tt-z [m.] - age, to be old, old
s-ggy-v [f.] - fog, mist, covered, moist, damp, to have difficulties to see
s-lly-n [f.] - moon, to enlighten, sacred
v-pl-n [f.] - view, to see, to watch, worth watching
vp-rt-n [m.] - house, to dwell
t-rby-l [f.] - cloud, cloudy, clouded, to cloud over
ty-tr-r [f.] - anger, to be angry, angry
z-vj-z [f.] - river, to float

Non-root words (word class in brackets)

bei [v.] - 2SG>2SG form of byanglis
byäis [v.] - 3SG>3SG form of byanglis
byanglis [v.] - to be; to have; to get; to move to; to move from; to change to; to work as; to advance; to belong to; to remain
byol [conj.] - because
Dyot [pron.] - general demonstrative pronoun
dutya [pp.] - while
hök [adv.] - continuously, on-going
ma [part.] - feminine indefinite article
mo [part.] - masculine indefinite article
Tat [pron.] - 3rd person singular feminine
Tot [pron.] - 3rd person singular masculine
Zan [pron.] - 2nd person singular
zewy [conj.] - so that
opipik - unnamed
After the night, the kind man was in his bedroom in a house on the river. In the now no longer misty houses during the morning the people of the village were watching the clouds. The kind man opened the window so that the moon was shining. The old chief was angry because he saw clouds continuously distracting him from seeing the moon.

Kangin~manekiat, kakut rongat to ngapuruk~marang, to ngamarmarang vaiak munmunai. To i marmarang, nga-ar ki iumangat, to keieng, i kasangsang~akut mai karis i musung. Kakut rongat mai savung ku ianguk masa. Kaseng vusun sarngatin-vakup, mai karis i musung, ngau ianguk tarkut karis.
Spoiler:
This conlang (which still doesn't have a name) has a very strict SOV word order. Subject and object are thus marked only by word order
I'm lazy and it's 22:30 so I'll just paste the relevant lines from my notes.
(also /s/ suddenly rising in frequency is a result of me discovering my original phonology had this phoneme)

Grammar

<ku> DAT
<-iat> NMLZ
perfective aspect is marked by <mai> before the verb (I guess this is used as a kind of a past tense)
<-in> adjectivizer
<to> during, (inessive, kind of)
<i> PL
<n-/na-> 1.POSS, <v-/va-> 2.POSS, <ng-/nga> 3.POSS
negative is marked by <ki> before the verb
noun-noun compounds are marked by a tilde between the respective nouns
initial CVC-reduplication is used for intensifying purposes or as an augmentative

Lexicon

<ngau> 3SG
<nga-ar> 3PL
<akut> "man (person)"
<munai> "water"
<angin> night
<varung> to find
<rongat> kind adj.
<puruk> bed, seat
<marang> room
<manek> to disappear
<vaiak> near
<iumangat> misty, moist, foggy
<keieng> morning
<sangsang> village
<vakup> sad
<karis> to watch, to look, to see
<musung> cloud
<savung> to open
<ianguk> moon
<nasa> to shine, to glow
<aseng> big man
<vusun> old, weathered
<sarngat> to destroy
<tarkut> to distract, to prevent
Ser - araya
At the disappearance of the night, the kind man was in his seating/sleeping room, in a large room [a house/hut?] near a large body of water [a lake?]. In(/From?) the large rooms, when they(i.e. the neighborhood/village??) are not misty/moist, in the morning, the villagers started to watch the clouds. The kind man opened [a door? the windows?] to the shining moon. The old great man was destroying-ly sad; he watched the clouds, [but] he was distracted by the moon.

kunuku menirine . nirca rana ru sa raimu sarmine . ku sa uksu tai muina paryannai · yuninni uku ni si suspraca . kantuppi amma uksui pauku atrinni supi · nirca rana kattas ti ansicna mirsu · sassa peramma rana si caupi nima rurtar . atrinnis supi . rik mirsu sa tinyapas
Spoiler:
I'll try to be as succinct as possible in the notes below.

Sounds and orthography
p t c k m n s r y
c is /tʃ/, y is /j/

i e a u
e is /ə/

. marks a short pause (cf. the comma in English)
· marks a longer pause (cf. the period in English)

Grammar

Noun inflection: three cases (direct 0, genitive -i, oblique -r), no number. Presence of pausal forms (forms that appear only before a pause).
DIR uksu 'house', GEN uksui, OBL uksur
DIR atrinnin 'to see (infinitive)', GEN atrinnei, OBL atrinnin (pausal OBL: atrinnine)

All three cases can be found after a preposition--the case depends on the preposition at the lexical level. The direct case marks subjects and direct objects. The genitive case marks possessors. The oblique case marks all sorts of miscellaneous things: purposes of objects, as well as (not seen in the text) nouns in coordination to another noun (Tom.DIR and Jerry.OBL), counted nouns (three.DIR warrior.OBL), verbal comparison (better speak.INF.OBL 'better at speaking'), adjectival modification with verbs (difficult do.INF.OBL 'difficult to do'), and other things.

A noun phrase in the oblique case can modify an adjective:
paite nirti rurtar
tired half heart.OBL
half-tired, somewhat tired
Verb inflection: two aspects (imperfective 0, perfective -s), no person + infinitive.
IMPF atrinni, PRF atrinnis

SVO, adjective + noun, negator + verb, possessum + possessor (when the possessor is not a pronoun), preposition + object.

The bound pronouns are direct object pronouns when found attached before a verb, or possessive pronouns when found attached before a noun.
sa asti
3 eat
'[I/you/he/she/we/they] eat it.'

sa astine
3 food
'His/her/their food.'
A prepositional phrase cannot modify a noun directly ("the book on the table was lost"), unless it is preceded by tai ("the book tai on the table...") or is introduced within a relative clause ("the book that was on the table...").

Lexicon (in the order the words appear)

kunuku (+OBL) - upon (time preposition that takes an infinitive, cf. "upon seeing my friend, I gave him a hug")
menirin - to get light, for the sun to rise (cf. Spanish amanecer)
nirca - kind, gentle
rana - man
ru - be [in/on/at a place]
sa - 3rd person bound pronoun
taimu - room
sarmin - bed
ku (+DIR) - in/at, inside
uksu - house
tai - TAI (grammatical word)
muina (+GEN) - near, close to
paryanna - lake
yuninni - morning
uku - when (time subordinator, not an interrogative pronoun)
ni - not
si - be [adjective]
praca - fog, mist
suspraca - foggy, misty
tuppi - village
kantuppi - villager
amma - many
pauku - then (anaphoric correlative of time)
atrinni - to watch
supi - cloud
katta - open [sth]
ti (+DIR) - to, for, towards
sicna - to shine
ansicna - shining
mirsu - moon
sassa - old (said of a person)
peramma - great, grand (said of a person)
caupi - sad
nima - full
rurta - heart
rik - but
tinyapa - distract [sb]
Jackk - Duban
At sunrise the kind man was in his bedroom, in his house which was near a lake. The morning was not at all misty; many villagers in their houses were watching the clouds. The kind man opened the window to look at the shining moon. Though the great old man was very sad, the moon distracted him.

Cu diri, sow ziem avua qu’ittu neugmosse qu’ittu maxo dus wed watega poyo. Da bozed zi daut wed ruobec; fo roun ommuvoin qu’ittu maxo zus, sitton zu se ruop. Moc o ziem avua gadoddi obe nest, fa but yon eppe mu fuarca. Ziem biof mo yur, a os bade roun, an ose o mu sibgaube.
Spoiler:
Morphology and syntax:

Sentence order is VSO, but long subjects may be shifted to before the verb - S, VO. In this case a resumptive subject pronoun replaces the subject.

Verb phrases: unmarked order is (VERB) (SBJ PRONOUN) (OBL PRONOUNS) (MOOD) (ASPECT) (SBJ NOUN PHRASE) (OBL NOUN PHRASE)

Example:
Rin do zuin un ken caduru.
sing 1s.sbj 3d.a.obl volitive inchoative story
I started trying to sing to them.

Noun phrases: unmarked order is (NUMBER) (NOUN) (ADJECTIVE) (POSSESSIVE)

Image
Image

Here -V means add an echo vowel that is the same as the previous vowel, and -He means (usually) geminate the last consonant (or add -h- if word ends with a vowel) and add -e.

Adjectives agree with their nouns with the same inflection.

Lexicon
Parlox - Lozkazmat
The time is bright, there is a kind man at the place and is inside a house with a lake nearby. It is not a morning with fog; The big handed villagers are at their town, looking at the clouds. Put the kind mans open window away, to have the goal of seeing the moon shine. The old man and good, they identify with their big sadness, they did make the moon a distraction.

Eup leyeur’ ol ger’, ol ger’ hoh’an h’anol eup klet eup kaz zkaeg föcq eup meugez sopan bes. Eup kalekamas meugez meugez or. Kömz ok k’omah’ bouz p’az ok leus naz ol azempbouz mazav, naz jah kömz or. Seus eup er’ hoh’an-bouz sancqazq r’at klet, cqalz meugez eup kasroz et naz jah eup cqacq naz aetonoz. Eup hazjon hoh’an jog eup ger’ k’omah’, azemp zkaeg vazhqor’ bouz cqalz-bouz p’az mosos jaskaz, cqalz kaz okoz eup cqacq gel blazantoz.
Spoiler:
Relevant Information
Lozkazmat uses SVO word order.
Adjectives precede the noun they modify.
Verbs are duplicated to negate themselves.
Eup “That” is used as a definite article, but is also uses as a conjunction and a relative pronoun. It’s plural form Kömz is used similarily.
Ok “Many” is used to form plurals, and is placed before a noun.
The gnomic aspect ol is used as a locative case in sentences where it won’t be confused.
Bouz “With” is used as a genitive on pronouns, and is attached to the back of a pronoun.
An aspect is placed before the verb it modifies.
The locative aspect can be formed by taking the last syllable of the previous word and attaching it to the front of the gnomic aspect.

Relevant Pronouns
Cqalz, 3RD Epicene Singular
Azemp, 3RD Epicene Plural

Relevant Vocabulary
Leyeur’, time (A noun).
Ger’, good (An adjective).
Hoh’an, man (A noun).
Klet, place, location (A noun).
Zkaeg, in(inclusion)(A verb).
Sopan, lake (A noun).
Föcq, home, house(A noun).
Meugez, have, possess(A verb).
Bes, near, nearby, close (An adjective).
Kalekamas, morning (A noun).
Or, cloud, fog(A noun).
K’omah’, person (A noun).
P’az, big, heavy (An adjective).
Leus, hand, foot (A noun).
Mazav, town (A noun).
Jah, see, view, observe (A verb).
Seus, put, place (A verb).
Sancqazq, window (A noun).
R’at, in(purpose)(A noun).
Kasroz, goal (A noun).
Et, of, by (A conjunction).
Cqacq, moon (A noun).
Aetonoz, shine, sparkle (A noun).
Hazjon, old (An adjective).
Jog, and (A conjunction).
Zkaeg, do (A verb).
Vazhqor’, identify (A verb)
Mosos, sad (An adjective).
Jaskaz, thing (A noun).
Okoz, use, make use of (A verb).
Gel, for (A verb).
Blazantoz, distraction (A noun).
Last edited by kiwikami on Mon 26 Feb 2018, 20:28, edited 6 times in total.
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by kiwikami » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:49

All Torches - Part 2

gestaltist - Nakarian
The time was good, there was a good man there, and he went to a house near a lake. The morning had no clouds. The people with big hands were in their town, and they saw clouds. That man was standing in the window in order to see the moon shine. That man was old, and he was a good person; they saw his big sadness, and he used the moon as distraction.

Naawen nejjibóo àwe, beneevye tàn thèehowo àwe, kinkirezawe theéshaôbo iibyóo oma. Taȝarre tamovậạ ųạwombàra. Bezêbe orawe ôttômbâibóo jan hozéechaa keeyaôbo àwe, bezêbe tamovậạ koo kày. Tàn owowine koo vòȝe qoráwo kórówe kongòma. Tańso kạ̀xaáwạ àwe beneevye jane àwe; hozéy hôibóo tsomạwèe koo kàwe ho ệẹ̀rasậxàa owee kaho ombama.
Spoiler:
General notes

Nakarian is generally head-final and head-marking. It has the SOV word order. It has an extensive system of strongly semantically motivated noun classes but doesn’t really have number marking except for some pronouns and demonstratives. It also doesn’t have tense, and - like number - it is generally expressed lexically, if at all. Nakarian heavily employs converbs and applicatives. It has no adpositions.

Nakarian is a regular, agglutinating language on the morphophonemic level. However, it is somewhat irregular on the surface level due to underlying morphophonological processes. I will try to limit myself to surface level where possible to make the translation job easier.

I have consistently used romanization throughout the relay. You will be able to look up the actual pronunciation when I make a thread about Nakrian. Soon (TM).

Nakarian noun

Nakarian nouns inflect for case only. The cases are:

Nominative - (zero-marking). Marks the topic of the sentence. This noun becomes the syntactic pivot for the rest of the sentence, and it is omitted from further clauses until a new subject is introduced in the nominative. The role of the noun in the nominative is determined by the rest of the sentence: it is the subject of an intransitive verb; for transitive verbs, the case of the other argument determines its role.
Accusative - (-e). Marks the undergoer role in a transitive sentence where the agent is the syntactic pivot.
Ergative - (-yi). Marks the agent role in a transitive sentence where the undergoer is the syntactic pivot.
Dative - (-h/-ha). Marks the medial argument of a ditransitive verb (including applied arguments).
Locative (-vo). Marks oblique arguments of verbs, with the exact meaning depending on the verb. For the purposes of this relay, it can be translated as meaning “in”.

Case is also encoded positionally, as follows: NOM>ERG>DAT>ACC>LOC

Nakarian verb

Nakarian finite verbs are a closed class, containing copulas, a couple independent verbs (like “to have”), auxiliaries, and light verbs. Finite verbs agree with the subject for noun class via a suffix. They also contain inherent perfectivity information - usually there are suppletive pairs of perfective and imperfective light verbs.

Agreement markers needed for the relay:
Class 1: -ma
Class 8: -ta (+back vowel harmony)

All other verbs appear exclusively as participles. A participle is formed from a verbal stem with a suffix encoding voice:

ACT active -o
PAS passive -taa
ANTIP antipassive -ibóo
MID middle -ve (monosyllabic verbs additionally get the prefix be- in middle voice)

In transitives, the active voice is always used. The other voices are used for detransitivization: passive raises the patient to the subject, antipassive removes the patient, and middle voice is used for situations where the agent-patient distinction is unclear (mostly reflexives and reciprocals).

Intransitives never use the active voice. While the system is more complex than that, for this relay, it’s enough to know that the default voice for intransitives is the middle voice. Antipassive can be used for unergative verbs if one speaks about a single action instead of an existential quality (e.g., speak-MID = “speaking” vs speak-ANTIP = “make a speech”).

A participle needs to be combined with its respective light verb to be used in a verbal role. I.e., most verbs inflect for voice and perfectivity in praxis. The light verb follows the participle. The perfective aspect is typically used for past events, and the imperfective - for non-past events and/or hints at a progressive or durative situation.

To sum up a complete verb tends to have the following structure:
VERB_STEM-PARTICIPIAL_VOICE_SUFFIX LIGHT_VERB_ENCODING_PERFECTIVITY-AGREEMENT_OR_CONVERBIAL_SUFFIX

A finite content verb would not have the participle (and, as a result, voice isn’t really encoded on copulas and other “full verbs.”)

Noun incorporation

Nakarian uses extensive noun incorporation. Nouns can be incorporated as prefixes on the verbal stem (typically in order to form a participle). Participles with incorporated nouns function the same way “bare” verb participles do.

Possessive construction

In Nakarian, possession is expressed by incorporating the possessed noun or the possessor to a participle of a defective noun -ʔ- Due to rather irregular morphophonology involved here, all related words are directly given in the lexicon. It should be noted that a noun complement coming directly before a possessive construction can modify either the possessed or the possessor that follows, or the head of the noun phrase. This needs to be determined from context.

Converbs

Converbs are the main way to introduce dependent clauses in Nakarian. Converbs are encoded by a suffix instead of the agreement marker on the light/finite verb. In this relay, only two converbs are used:
SEQ (sequential) -ve: the generic, underspecified converb - frequently used as a conjunction linking clauses with the same syntactic pivot.
RESULT (resultative) -ȝe: describes the result of the matrix clause. It introduces clauses of the type “so…”, “as a result…” but also “in order to…” I.e., it also denotes telicity and goals.

Applicatives

Nakarian has several applicatives. Due to strict valency rules of Nakarian, raising a verb’s valency always requires marking that operation somehow - typically through an applicative. The applied argument gets Dative marking as far as this relay is concerned.
Applicatives are denoted by auxiliary verbs which are used in lieu of the light verb in the VP.

Adjectives / Noun complements

Adjectives are for all intents and purposes stative intransitive verbs. They always use the copula as their light verb.
Another noun or an intransitive participle can be used before a noun as its complement. It doesn’t take any agreement marking. (Only the head noun gets case marking.)

Morphophonology

Nakarian morphophonology is rather complex. The following rules are used in this relay and not (always) covered in the lexicon:

* between vowels, many consonants undergo alteration: y > jj, v > w
* word-initially, some consonants undergo fortition: v > b, w > v
* IMPORTANT: there is front-back vowel harmony. In back harmony words all e > ạ, i > ẹ, and y > ȝ. Back harmony is dominant, i.e., a single back harmony vowel ạ or ẹ makes the whole word back-harmonizing. NOTE that <ȝ> doesn’t trigger back harmony, and it can appear in front-harmony words. However, <y> cannot appear in back-harmony words.
* coda consonants frequently trigger morphophonological processes; the only one necessary for this relay, and not shown in the lexicon, is: eyvV > eevyV
* some consonants get fortited after a checked vowel (marked with the circumflex, e.g. <â>): v > b
* crasis occurs for neighboring vowels of different quality, unless one of them is checked:
* V1+V2 > V2V2
* Vi# > Vy#
* if any of the above changes voices an unvoiced consonant, the following vowel receives high tone (marked with the acute accent)
* if any of the above changes devoices a voiced consonant, the following vowel receives low tone (marked with the grave accent)
* tone sandhi: every second mora, starting with the penultimate one, is stressed, and it attracts tone while preserving the tone contour with the neighboring mora. E.g., kará > kàra. Be aware of this but also please note that nowhere in the relay is tone actually changing the meaning of any word, so feel free to ignore it for translation purposes.


Lexicon

naawen - moment (noun class 5)
ney - to be good (intransitive verb)
à - copula, perfective (transitive finite verb, also used as a light verb with many stative intransitives)
tàn - man (noun class 1)
tańso - that man (with a demonstrative suffix)
thèehowo - there
kinki - lake (noun class 12)
reza - to be near (intransitive verb)
thèeshaô - house (noun class 7)
iibyóo - to go - antipassive participle (used with perfective light verb “o”)
taȝạrrẹ - morning (noun class 8)
tamovậ - cloud (noun class 8)
ųe- verbal negation prefix
(w)omba - to have (perfective finite verb); also an auxiliary triggering the instrumental applicative
bezêbe - many, a lot - a typical way to indicate a plural
ora - to be big (intransitive verb)
ôttômbâibóo - “hand-having”, “with hands” (possessive construction)
jan - person (noun class 2)
hozéy - they (nominative)
hozéechaa - their (possessive construction)
keeyaô - town (noun class 4)
ke - to see (transitive verb)
kà - (perfective light verb) - used with experiential verbs related to senses
wò - (imperfective light verb) - used with experiential verbs related to senses
owowin - moonshine (noun class 3)
qòra - window (noun class 8)
kóró - to stand (intransitive verb)
kóngo - (imperfective light verb) - used with stative verbs of posture
kạ̀xàa - to be old (intransitive verb)
hôibóo - his (possessive construction)
tsomạ́wo - sadness (noun class 11)
ho - he/she (nominative)
ệẹ̀rasậxàa - distraction (noun class 11) - Dative form
owo - moon (noun class 8)
kah - to use (transitive verb)
DesEsseintes - Núta
The time was right. The good man was there, walking towards the house by the lake. It was a cloudless morning. The handed giants saw clouds in their town. The man stood by the window in order to watch the moonlight. This man was an old man, a good man; They saw his sadness and how he used the moon as a distraction.

Nıkní·twa kerúk etìstruku. Neswerú·ku tsıré ahà·tıku huhyarí·ku yá·nwa tharetseké·re hatú·newı. Eyehwásneku ısyé·ka utsné·ye ay. Awayuwí·yıte ısyé·ka nwerȧhsukrí·rye natsısıwá·rıye áyasewa. Ahuhyataní·ku ú·ku nay kwerısrà·te, heyasewewí·u nyá‘sewa Hyehtatá·wa. Ú·ku nay tswakarú·ku, ú·ku nay neswerú·ku; Asruyuwí·yıte sėh esksurye‘hú·te sėh kíkurıwa ahėsnı‘nérsuku Hyehtatá·wa ní·yut ȧhwıwısthústre.
Spoiler:
The Grammar

Typology

Núta is an agglutinating polysynthetic language. It is predominantly head-marking and makes use of polypersonal agreement affixes to clarify the roles of different arguments. Word order is not fixed but tends towards VSO. Demonstratives, adjectives and relative clauses follow their heads.

Salient grammatical features of Núta are: a) numerous noun classes that mainly manifest in agreement morphology on verbs, adjectives, pronouns, and derived adjective-noun compounds; b) animacy; c) obviation marking on animate nouns tied in with direct-inverse marking on verbs.

Phonology

Four morphophonological processes that need to be taken into account are:

Devoicing - vowels in certain environments (especially before s h) devoice. This is indicated with a dot above ȧ ė i u̇.

Vowel lengthening - stressed vowels in open syllables lengthen if penultimate. This is indicated with an interpunct á· é· í· ú·.

Vowel epenthesis - if an affix creates an unacceptable consonant cluster at a morpheme boundary, an epenthetic vowel is inserted to break up the cluster. The vowel is:
e if the nucleus of the following syllable starts with one of a u w
u if the nucleus of the following syllable starts with one of e ı y.

Low tone genesis - if a stressed syllable has an h in coda, its tone turn to low tone, marked with a grave accent à è ì ù. The h then elides.

Nouns

Núta nouns are divided into animate nouns - referring to humans, animals, deities, and other entities perceived as being capable of purposive action - and inanimate nouns - referring to everything else.

Núta nouns are not inflected for case and only optionally for number. The plural stem of animate nouns is formed by adding -rır- to the singular stem, before any eventual proximate or obviative ending.

Animate nouns are inflected for obviation. If there is more than one 3rd person referent in a discourse, one is chosen as the focal point of said discourse and marked as proximate. All other 3rd person referents are marked as obviative.

The markers are:

Proximate -u
Obviative -ye

Animate nouns in the glossary are listed with the proximate marker.

Inanimate nouns take no specific suffix, but if the noun stem ends in a consonant or consonant cluster that is not permitted word-finally, an epenthetic -e is added.

Possession

Nouns are also divided into two categories depending on whether they are alienably or inalienably possessed.

Inalienable nouns can be possessed without any stem alteration. Inalienable nouns are marked as such in the glossary.

Alienable nouns form a possessed stem with the addition of the suffix -ıwa. As an example kùtne (stem kuhtn) flower has the possessed stem kùtnıwa. Note that when attached to a stem ending in a, the combination a + ıwa results in ewa.

If a possessed noun is used in a sentence where the possessor is the subject of an intransitive verb or the object of an transitive verb, it takes no prefix and the possessor is inferred from the verb.

Atwí·yıt kùtnıwa. - I saw my flower.
Ahwí·yıt kùtnıwa. - He saw his (own) flower

Compare the following sentence where the subject is not the possessor (h- is the 3sg possessive prefix)

Ahwí·yıt hekùtnıwa. - He saw his (someone else’s) flower.

The only possessive prefix used in the relay text is indeed h- - his/her.

Noun Classes

The following noun classes occur in the text, given here with the relevant class prefix:
CODE: SELECT ALL

Class I n
Class III t
Class IV ts
Class VI y
Noun class prefixes are used on adjectives, in the verb template (see section on verbs below), on inflected prepositions, and in adjective-noun compounds. As an example of the last one, the noun kí·ru (woman Class I) could be combined with the prefix swe good and the noun class marker n to form the word neswekí·ru good woman.

Verbs

The Núta verb follows a templatic morphology. A simplified version of the template is as follows:

-6 Augment
-5 Primary Argument
-4 Secondary Argument
-3 Noun Class Agreement
-2 Instrumental/Locative
-1 Aspect/Mood
0 Stem
1 Tense
2 Obviation

-6
The augment is a morpheme that only appears if the verb is: a) the head of a main clause; b) not negated. The augment is a- if the verb carries a person marker (slots -5 and/or -4), e- otherwise. A verb without an augment is often interpreted as being subordinate to another, main clause verb.

-5 and -4
Person marking of animate arguments comes in these two slots. If a verb has both a subject and an object, the order of arguments adheres to the following animacy hierarchy:
1st person > 2nd person > 3rd person proximate > 3rd person obviative
Note that this means that if the agent of the verb is obviative, it will be marked after the patient in the verb template.

Only third person arguments appear in the text. The relevant morphemes are as follows:
CODE: SELECT ALL

INTR PROX OBV.DIR OBV.INV
3sg h s/h* es rı
3pl wa r wa ru

*s before a consonant, h before a vowel
INTR is used for the sole animate argument of an intransitive verb, or a transitive verb with an inanimate object.
PROX is used to mark the proximate argument of a transitive verb with two animate arguments.
OBV.DIR is used to mark an obviative argument acting as patient.
OBV.INV is used to mark an obviative argument acting as agent.

-3
Noun Class is marked in this slot if the subject, object or theme of the verb is an inanimate noun. The markers are the same as the noun class prefixes listed in the noun section.

-2
This slot is used to mark the Locative and Instrumental.
The Locative h indicates that a destination or location is involved in the verb. A noun that can function as a location referred to directly by the Locative is marked LOC in the glossary.
The Instrumental nı‘n indicates that a preceding noun is used for a certain purpose.

-1
Durative Aspect is marked with the morpheme ya- just before the verb stem.
The Purposive Mood is marked with the morpheme aseRe- where R is the first consonant of the verb stem. The Purposive does not cooccur with the Durative nor with the augment.

1
Tense markers include
-ku for imperfective past action
-yıt for perfective past action

2
If the subject of the verb is obviative, this slot takes the marker e.

One More Thing

The suffix -é·re can be used to turn a verb into an adjective.

The Glossary

ahtı v. to be at X, to be there
ȧhwıwısthústre n.inan. (VI) distraction
atsısı n.inan.inalienable (I) hand
ay demonstrative pronoun that; (used resumptively) the - Note: the demonstrative pronoun inflects for noun class
áyasa n.inan. (III, LOC) - town
ersu v. use
esksurye‘hú·te n.inan.inalienable (VI) sadness
haretsek v. to be located next to
hatú·newı n.inan. (III, LOC) lake, sea
hwasn v. to be without, to lack, to be missing
Hyehtatá·wa n.anim. (I) 1. (specifically) The Watcher, the brightest star in the night sky of Áánene ; 2. (in general) the brightest celestial body in the night sky of a given world
ıhstru v. to be right/opportune
ısyé·ka n.inan. (VI) cloud
í·yut preposition as Note: this is an inflected preposition and takes a noun class prefix
kerúk adv. exactly, just so, precisely
kí·kure (stem kıkur) n.inan. (VI) method
kwé·rıse n.inan. (III) window
nıkní·twa n.inan. (III) moment
nyá‘sa n.inan. (VI) light
rá·te 1. n.inan. (III) side ; 2. nominal suffix (III) creates a noun X-rá·te meaning ‘place next to X’
rı v. to walk
sėh ... sėh ... conj. both ... and ...
swer prefix good, of high quality, of sound moral character
tanı v. to stand
tsıré adv. there
ú·ku n.anim. (I) man, male
utsné·ye n.inan. (VI) morning
wakar prefix old - Note: this prefix switches the noun class to class IV
warı suffix forms an adjective X-warı meaning ‘having X, X-ed
werȧhs prefix unusually large, larger than normal
wı v. to see
yá·nwa n.inan. (III, LOC) house, dwelling
bbbourq - Lortho
It was at that exact moment. There were good men who were walking by a house next to the lake. There were no clouds that morning. They see a huge cloud over their town. The man stood by the window to see the brightest star in the the sky. That man, the good man; The see both his sadness and his methods for using the brightest star as a distraction.

Imageharlikha thareka lina. malhirikhiami shini kalanemi lhemar ikhi dharati lhemar lalhadhiena. dhakharleda kadhume ma toskhiru. kilikhimi molhu kadhume limikheinaina khol. maurini kalani lhemar lhadiniena kilikho dirkoreshu moshtharume hammoina. ma kalani, shini kalani; menanimi limenishume hana linobaneme kosharo ime dirkoreshu moshtharulen.
Spoiler:
Grammar notes:

Lortho is a NOM-ACC, agglutinating language. The word order is VSO.
Adverbs always come before the noun or verb and do not undergo any change.
Adjectives always come before the noun and will change to agree in gender only.
In the lexicon, entries will be listed as follows:
---verbs will be listed infinitive followed by the 1MSG present tense (in parentheses)
---Adjectives will be listed by root
---All nouns will be listed by gender followed by the plural (in parentheses)
-----Note: if a plural is not listed, there is no plural form of that word
Past tense is formed by adding the suffix -ikh before the personal ending
Past progressive is accomplished by adding the infix -a- in the personal ending
Further information about verb conjugation and personal endings is available here
Possessive, for the sake of this text only, is formed by adding a personal possessive pronoun prefix to the noun (the noun used in the table is dhammu (chair):

Code: Select all

Person		Singular					Plural
		masculine	feminine	neuter		masculine	feminine	neuter
1st person	nidhammu	nudhammu	-		nimadhammu	numadhammu	-
2nd person	lindhammu	lundhammu	-		nanidhammu	nanudhammu	-
3rd person	lidhammu	ludhammu	ladhammu	limidhammu	limudhammu	limadhammu
You can see a better table here
Negation is done by adding the prefix dhak- to the verb root
There are ten cases in Lortho; however, for the sake of this text, only four have been used:
-Nominative Case (NOM): no change/suffix
-Accusative Case (ACC): -me
-Lative Case (LAT):
---feminine nouns will change -u to -o + -ina (/ui/ is an unauthorized diphthong)
---neuter nouns will add -ina
---masculine nounse will add -ena
-Instrumental Case (INST): -len

There is no definite article as it is part of the word. The numeral one (1) is used for the indefinite article

Lexicon:

harlan (harli) v. – to be
tharek- adj. – perfect, right, accurate
lina (pl linane) n. neut – moment
malhiro (malhirin) v. – to walk
shin- adj. – good
kalani (pl kalanemi) n. masc – male, man
lhemar adv. – near, next to
ikhi – one, a(n)
dharati (pl dharateni) n. masc – house
lalhadhi (pl lalhadheni) n. neut – lake
harlet (harledin) v. – to exist, have
kadhu (pl kadhune) n. neut – cloud
ma demonstrative adj. – that
toskhiru (pl toskhirune) n. fem – morning, dawn
kilikho (kilikhin) v. – to see
molh- adj. – large, colossal, huge
kheina (pl kheinane) n. neut – village, town
khol adposition – over
mauran (maurin) v. – to stand
lhadini (pl lhadinemi) n. masc – window
dir - superlative prefix (i.e. -est)
koresh- adj. – bright
moshtharu (pl moshtarune) n. fem – star
hammu (pl hammune) n. fem – sky, heavens
menan (menanin) v. – to understand
menishu n. fem – sadness
hana conj. - and
noba (pl nobane) n. neut – cause, reason
kosharo (kosharin) v. – to distract, divert one’s attention
Dormouse559 - Silvish
It was the right moment. The good men were walking near a house near the lake. There are no clouds that morning. They see large clouds over their village. The man stands near the window to see the brightest star. That man, the good man; they understand his sadness and his reason for distracting himself with the brightest star.

L'etté lou bon mouman. Li bbon-i-z oeumi hammen-aeye a cotta d'en-e maezo a cotta du leyou. L'i-y a pa de neble çou matté. Eu vvaeze de grante nneble damonti d'lour villadjou. L'O l'ett a cotta d'la fan-ettre par vezae l'ettele la plu bbriillante. Çett O, li bonz O ; eu ccomprangne sa tristize e par quent raezon-i eu se distré avé l'ettaele lae plu bbriillan.
Spoiler:
General Notes
Silvish is a Romance language. It displays NOM-ACC alignment, fusional tendencies and SVO word order.
There are several phonological processes operating at word boundaries. Their presence or absence can give grammatical information, such as plurality and gender.
The following descriptions deal solely with written Silvish, rather than directly with pronunciation. For the purposes of this translation, think of <a e i o u> as vowel letters and all other letters as consonants. Think of <n-> as a single letter.

Nouns
Silvish has two grammatical gender binaries: masculine vs. feminine and common vs. noble. Every noun is assigned one gender from each pair (such as "masculine noble" or "feminine common").

There are three noun cases: nominative, accusative and oblique. Because of syncretism, no single noun distinguishes more than two of the three. Nominative marks the subject, accusative marks the direct object and oblique is used after certain prepositions (noted in glossary).

There are two numbers: singular and plural.

The relevant declension paradigms, based on model nouns, are as follows:

Ettele, "star"
These nouns all suffix <e> to the root in the nominative singular. The final vowel of the root is <e> and becomes <ae> in the oblique case.
CODE: SELECT ALL

NOM ACC OBL
SG ettele ettele ettaele
PL ettele ettele ettaeli

Maezo, "house"
These nouns' nominative, singular form is the bare root, which ends in <o>.
CODE: SELECT ALL

NOM ACC OBL
SG maezo maezo maezon-i
PL maezont maezont maezon-i

O, "man"
This noun's root undergoes an irregular alternation. It is capitalized in the nominative singular.
CODE: SELECT ALL

NOM ACC OBL
SG O oeumi oeumi
PL oeumi oeumi oeumi

NB: Since nouns don't have distinct forms for all categories, it can be necessary to cross-reference the noun's form with that of an article, adjective or verb connected to it, or consider its position in the sentence. For example, on its own, ettele could be any of four different forms. But adding a form of the definite article, to get l'ettele, narrows it down to two possibilities: nominative singular or accusative singular. If l'ettele follows the verb, it's more likely to be an object, leaving accusative singular as the only option.


Adjectives and determiners
Adjectives and determiners agree with nouns in gender, number and case. Most adjectives follow the noun they modify. But bon (good) and gran (large) precede the noun. Determiners precede the noun phrase.

Determiners, as well as adjectives that precede a noun, interact phonologically with the following word:
Emergent consonants - Some words have a latent consonant that becomes pronounced when the word precedes a vowel, <r> or <l>. Words with emergent <z> are often plural forms (e.g. grante [big-F(PL)] + ettele [star(PL)] = grante-z ettele [big stars]).
Elision - When a word ending in one or more vowels doesn't have an emergent consonant, it may experience elision. If it precedes a word beginning with a vowel, <r> or <l>, its final vowel(s) may be deleted. These words are often singular forms (e.g. grante [big-F(SG)] + ettele [star(SG)] = grant'ettele [big star]).
Gemination - When a word with an emergent consonant is followed by a consonant other than <r> or <l>, it causes that consonant to double. (e.g. grante [big-F(PL)] + maezont [houses] = grante mmaezont [big bridges] — cf. grante [big-F(SG)] + maezo [house] = grante maezo [big house]).
Consonant mutation - Some words end in a <t> when in isolation. If the word precedes a vowel, the <t> changes to a <z>. (e.g. grant [big-M.NOBLE] + O [man] = granz O [big man])

Adjectives have several declension paradigms. The relevant patterns are listed below. If a form has an emergent consonant, it is shown in parentheses.

Gran, "big"
These adjectives end in <n> in the citation form, which is the common, masculine, nominative singular.
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG gran(t) gran(t) granti grante grante gran(t)
PL grant grant granti(-z) grante(-z) grante(-z) granti(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG grant granti granti grante gran(t) gran(t)
PL granti(-z) granti(-z) granti(-z) grante(-z) granti(-z) granti(-z)

Bon, "good"
Bon is irregular.
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG bon bon bon-i bon-e bon-e bon
PL bont bont bon-i(-z) bon-e(-z) bon-e(-z) bon-i(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG bont bon-i bon-i bon-e bon bon
PL bon-i(-z) bon-i(-z) bon-i(-z) bon-e(-z) bon-i(-z) bon-i(-z)

Superlatives are formed by placing lou plu(-z) before the adjective. Lou is the definite article, so it agrees fully with the noun. Plu(-z) follows the same emergent consonant rules as adjectives.

There are five kinds of determiners: definite article, indefinite article, demonstrative, possessive, interrogative. Each noun phrase is preceded by one determiner.

Lou, definite article
Lou declines as follows:
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG lou lou lae la la lae
PL lou(-z) lou(-z) li(-z) la(-z) la(-z) li(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG li lae lae la lae lae
PL li(-z) li(-z) li(-z) lae(-z) li(-z) li(-z)
When the preposition de is followed by lou, they combine into du.


En, indefinite article
En has a suppletive plural, de.
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG en en en-i en-e en-e en
PL de de de de de de

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG ent en-i en-i en-e en en
PL de de de de de de

Çou, demonstrative
In environments that would normally cause elision, the forms of çou instead change to çett.
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG çou çou çae çette çette çes
PL çou(-z) çou(-z) çi(-z) çette(-z) çette(-z) çetti(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG çi çae çae çette çes çes
PL çi(-z) çi(-z) çi(-z) çes çetti(-z) çetti(-z)

Possessives
The third-person possessives encode the number of the possessor. They also agree with the possessum in gender, number and case.

The third-person singular possessive declines like this:
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG son son sae sa sa sae
PL sou(-z) sou(-z) si(-z) sa(-z) sa(-z) sa(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG si sae sae sa sae sae
PL si(-z) si(-z) si(-z) sae(-z) si(-z) si(-z)

The third-person plural possessive declines as follows.
CODE: SELECT ALL

COMMON
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG lour lour lououi lououe lououe lououe
PL lourt lourt lououi(-z) lououe(-z) lououe(-z) lououi(-z)

NOBLE
MASC FEM
NOM ACC OBL NOM ACC OBL
SG lourt lououi lououi lououe lououe lououe
PL lououi(-z) lououi(-z) lououi(-z) lououe(-z) lououi(-z) lououi(-z)

Quen, interrogative
Quen declines like gran.


Pronouns
Silvish is non-pro-drop. All verbs take some kind of subject pronoun if the subject is not a noun phrase. The third-person singular pronoun is eu. The plural is eu(-z), which undergoes the same phonological interactions as adjectives and determiners.

The third-person reflexive pronoun, se, is placed directly after the subject pronoun.


Verbs
Verbs agree with the subject in person and number. They also encode tense/aspect. The following verb tables will include the present and imperfect tense/aspect, as well as the third-person singular and plural. The imperfect is used for descriptions of the past as well as events that are ongoing in the past. The present describes events ongoing in the present.

Ettre, to be, to stand
The finite forms of ettre are always preceded by an irregular subject pronoun, included below:
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS l'ett eu sson
IPF l'etté eu-z ettaeye

Avae, to have
Like ettre, avae always takes a subject pronoun. Avae is often used in the phrase l'i-y a, meaning "there is/are". Whatever "there is" is treated as the direct object.
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS l'a eu-z on
IPF l'avé eu-z avaeye

Hammen-ae, to walk
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS hammen-e hammen-e
IPF hammen-é hammen-aeye

Vezae, to see
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS vé vaeze
IPF vezé vezaeye

Comprandre, to understand
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS compran comprangne
IPF comprangné comprangnaeye

Distraere, to distract
CODE: SELECT ALL

3SG 3PL
PRS distré distaeye
IPF distreyé distreyaeye


Glossary
Entries are listed in alphabetical order with the following format:

word POS masc./fem. com./noble - English translation

The masculine/feminine, common/noble abbreviations are only used for nouns. Nouns are listed in the singular, nominative form. Adjectives and determiners are in the singular, nominative, masculine, common form. Verbs are in the infinitive.


a cotta de prep. phrase - near, next to (followed by accusative)
avé prep. - with (followed by oblique case)
bon adj. - good; right (i.e. correct)
briillan adj. - bright
comprandre v. - understand
çou det. - that (demonstrative)
damonti de prep. phrase - over (followed by accusative)
de det. - ≈some (partitive article), ≈any (after pa)
de prep. - of, from (ends prepositional phrases a cotta de and damonti de, q.v.)
distraere v. - to distract
e conj. - and
en det. - a (indefinite article)
ettele n. fem. com. - star
ettre v. - to be, to stand
eu(-z) pro. - they (3PL.NOM.M; apply rules for emergent consonants/gemination)
fan-ettre n. fem. com. - window
gran adj. - big, large
hammen-ae v. - to walk
l'i-y a v. phrase - there is/are
leyou n. mas. com. - lake
lou det. - the (definite article; see also lou plu(-z))
lour det. - their (possessive)
lou plu(-z) adv. phrase - most (superlative)
maezo n. fem. com. - house
matté n. masc. com. - morning
mouman n. masc. com. - moment
neble n. fem. com. - cloud
O n. masc. noble - man
pa part. - negative particle
par prep. - for (followed by oblique case)
quen det. - which, what
raezo n. fem. com. - reason
se pro. - himself/herself/itself/themselves (3.REFL)
son det. - his/her/its (possessive)
tristize n. fem. com. - sadness
vezae v. - to see
villadjou n. masc. com. - village
cedh - Ronc Tyu
It was the good moment. The good men were walking near a house next to the lake. There was no cloud that morning. They see some big clouds over their village. The man stands near the window in order to see the brightest star. That man, the good man; they understand their sadness and for which reason he distracts himself with the brightest star.

Ki línc mumbùn nyac. Nyu nrènc, hunc ndzu kein zúc zúc do ruoc runc sáe rae yaon. Trà sru yéi poun poun màc yu ndzì ko, kè wèi kù hru, myòu trae làe o dzó pec tác kàc tè tè léi. Hunc tò pùn suo sáe o dzó gyè ruzruo ngòc yunc myen nyu láo myéc. Ndzì tsáo ndźei dwá trén tsèi gyào twín yèanc, trén tsèi gyào ndźi lùo lùo zrin trá ndáo tó, o trén tsèi gyào ndźí ndźù pwì pou mba myéc bùn źùn bwí nwa xòac nú myéc.
Spoiler:
Vocabulary
CODE: SELECT ALL

bùn pron (relative pronoun, animate)
bwí v.it be bright
do v.it+ come, approach (towards 3rd person inanimate)
dwá v.tr understand
dzó pron the same one (animate)
gyào pron (relative pronoun, inanimate)
gyè v.it move sideways, shift one's position
hru n.i detail, characteristic feature
kàc v.tr bear, carry
kè cj but, however (used with clauses)
kein v.it+ depart, leave, go away (from speaker)
ki det this, these
ko adv only, merely, barely, just, simply
kòun v.it move around, go (nowhere in particular), roam, wander
kù det that, those
làe v.it be calm, be clear, be sunny (of weather)
lánc SGV línc n.a.coll time (SGV: moment, situation)
láo v.tr watch, look at
léi SGV yéi n.a.coll clouds
lùo v.tr be worried about
màc n.i.coll village
mba qu (singulative particle)
mbùn v.it be good, do well
mumbùn v.it be very good, be perfect, do really well
myéc (no SGV) n.a.coll stars
myen v.it look (atelic/stative)
myòu n.a.coll sky, weather
ndzì pron (3rd person animate paucal/collective pronoun)
ndzu v.it rise, get up
ndźei v.tr know, be acquainted with (cf. French connaître)
ndźí pron (3rd person animate plural pronoun)
ndźù v.tr search for
ngòc n.a.coll eyes
nrènc n.a.coll sunrise, daybreak, early morning
nú det the other one(s)
nwa v.tr exceed, surpass
nyac v.it win, be victorious; (when used in a SVC) very
nyu v.tr see; (when used as a coverb) before
o cj and, also (used with clauses)
pec v.aux not, be not
pou v.tr find, discover
poun pp.n over, above, on top of
pùn v.it stand, be upright
pwì v.tr try, attempt, strive
rae pp.n at the edge of (but still within the relevant area)
runc pp.n near, beside, close to
ruoc n.i megalith
ruzruo v.tr lift, raise (can only be used within SVC)
sáe n.i.coll shores (of a river or lake)
sran COLL hunc n.a elder, experienced person (suppletive "plural" takes collective agreement)
sru det (indefinite determiner, animate)
suo pp.v at, on (static locative)
tác v.tr have, hold, own, possess
táo PL ndáo n.i thing, item
tè qu any (of many)
tò v.it be calm, be silent (of people and animals)
trá adv (question particle, used with VS word order)
trà v.it exist (used with VS word order)
trae v.it be cold (of weather)
trén det which? (interrogative inanimate)
tsáo v.it be wise
tsèi n.i reason, explanation, motivation
tsyún PL twín n.a person
wèi pp.n outside of; apart from; without
xòac qu the entirety of, all (of a collection)
yaon n.a lake
yèanc v.it be sad
yu pp.n of, belonging to, associated with
yunc v.it be awake, be alert, pay attention, concentrate
zrin cj (complementizer, hypothetical; indicates speculative information)
zúc v.it walk
źùn v.it shine, glow

Grammar

Nouns
Nouns can be animate or inanimate, countable or collective, and optionally or obligatorily possessed.
Countable nouns refer to single entities, and may inflect for plural number. Plural forms which occur in this text are given in the wordlist.
Collective nouns refer to a collection of items by default, and may inflect for singulative number if only one single member of the collection is referenced. Singulative forms which occur in this text are given in the wordlist. A few collective nouns form their singulatives periphrastically with a separate particle.
Obligatorily possessed nouns must be followed immediately by their possessor, without any explicit marking. Optionally possessed nouns form possessive phrases with a preposition.
Pronouns and Determiners
Pronouns make more number distinctions than nouns, having dedicated forms also for dual, paucal, and collective referents.
Non-numeral quantifiers may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. ni "many" > ni ni "a really large number of".
Prepositions
Ronc Tyu distinguishes between two types of prepositions: Adnominal prepositions (pp.n) refer only to noun phrases (e.g. "the tree on the hill"), whereas adverbial prepositions (pp.v) always refer to the clause (e.g. "I'm standing on the hill"). Adnominal prepositions may be nested within an adverbial prepositional phrase.
Adnominal prepositions may be reduplicated for an intensified meaning, e.g. runc "near, beside" > runc runc "very close to".
Verbs
Verbs inflect for passive voice and for the attributive (a kind of participle, which makes up for the fact that Ronc Tyu does not have a lexical class of adjectives). However, there are no passive or attributive verb forms in this text.
Reduplicating a verb root indicates habitual, iterative, or continuative aspect.
Syntax
The basic word order is SVO, with occasional exceptions (for example, there's VS(O) in existential statements and passive sentences).
Phrases are typically head-initial, with modifiers following their heads.
Ronc Tyu frequently uses serial verb constructions (SVC) consisting of two or more verbs to describe complex actions and situations, with the component verbs typically appearing in the chronological order of subevents. Some common collocations have a slightly idiomatic meaning, but all SVC in this text should be fairly transparent.
Some types of SVC can also serve a grammatical purpose, for example describing cause-event relationships or adding modal or aspectual information.
Most SVC have the shape NP₁ V V (V) (NP₂), with all verbs sharing the same subject NP₁ (and, where relevant, the same object NP₂).
Another type of SVC has the shape NP₁ V (V) NP₂ V (V) (NP₃), where the middle noun phrase NP₂ simultaneously functions as the object of the verb(s) before it and as the subject of the verb(s) after it.
Certain verbs can also be used as coverbs, functioning in a way similar to adpositions or conjunctions, introducing oblique arguments or subclauses.
Polar indirect questions and polar interrogative content clauses are formed as a normal polar yes-no-question within a complement clause.
Adverbial indirect questions and adverbial interrogative content clauses are formed using a combination of a special interrogative determiner plus a relative clause.
A few words lexically require unusual syntactic constructions; this has been noted in the wordlist where relevant.

A more elaborate grammatical description of Ronc Tyu can be found at http://akana.conlang.org/wiki/Ronc_Tyu

(English Translation of Ronc Tyu Text)

This moment was very much perfect. Before sunrise, the elders got up and walked to the megalith at the shore of the lake. There was a single cloud high above their village, but apart from that the sky was cold and clear and completely free of clouds. The elders quietly stood at the shore and looked up to the stars. They were wise and understood why people were sad, why they kept worrying whether things might have a hidden meaning, and why they were trying to find out which star was the brightest one.
Frislander - Frislandian
The time is right. Before the dawn, the elders have risen and are walking out to the megalith near the shores of the lake. There is a cloud right on top of their village, but outside of that detail, the weather is cold and sunny and there are no other similar clouds at all. The elders, standing silently at the shore, at the same time turn aside and lift their eyes to watch for the stars. They in their wisdom know the reason why the people are sad, the reason they are so afraid of its significance, and the reason they are trying to find a star that shines brighter than all the other stars.

Tìna ari tjala. Hlàzun tjòtak, mégis úza tjórri meni épugonkuk kertu kimart. Opsi igulak ára-árakuk, úna kajjart, sìpi puku, pà pytakuk, moru opsi nemat pamperukuk.
Hlàzun mégis úzala kuzullula tjók, mùssuk, ájuttyk pytarri sètarryk. Ekanelak powulys tàwas kùsi, tjìlat mígarryjarris kùsi, moru pytagortti kókurris kùsi, kélak.
Spoiler:
Lexicon
CODE:

Áju n. eye
Ára v.intr lie
Ari n. time, moment
Ekane n. wisdom
Épu, mò v.intr go
Hlàzu n. elder
Igu n. village, settlement
Kàja, kajja v.trans exclude, except
Kéla v.trans know,
Kertu n. dawn
Kima, kìmata v.intr precede, come before
Kó, kòta v.trans hunt, look for
Kùsi n. reason, cause
Kuzullu n. silence
Mégi n. lake
Meni n. megalith
Mígarry v.trans frighten, make afraid
Moru n. other, different
Múmussu, mùssu v.intr turn around
Nema n. sky, heavens
Opsi n. cloud
Pà n. sun
Peru, pèruta v.trans hold, carry
Powuly n. people, nation
Pu v.intr sit
Pyta v.intr shine
Pytarri n. star
Sénta, sèta v.trans look.
Sìpi n. cold
Tàwa n. sad, sorrowful
Tìna n. (proximal demonstrative)
Tjala n. right, correct
Tjìla n. meaning, significance
Tjó v.intr stand
Tjójuta, tjòta v.intr stand up
Úna n. (distal demonstrative)
Úza n. edge, border

General points
• Some affixes trigger certain kinds of mutation of consonants. There are two main kinds, strengthening and weakening, and of those only rt > rr and rt > rtt respectively are found in the text.

Nouns
• Nouns may take four case; absolutive, ergative/instrumental (suffix -t), genitive (suffix -s) and locative (suffix -la). These fuse with the plural suffix -n giving the endings -tty, -ssy and -lla respectively.
• The ergative/instrumental is a combined case that marks both roles, however there are syntactic differences. Most importantly, the verb can mark an ergative argument, but it cannot mark an instrumental. Thus when the causative is applied to a transitive verb and the causee is demoted to instrumental role it keeps the same case marking but the argument marked on the verb is the causer.
• The locative is more of a general adverbial case, since it expresses concepts other than simple location, and is also used to mark adverbs derived from “adjectives” (see below).
• Nouns may also take a suffix to mark possessor – this is identical to the verbal person marking, and again the only form found in the text is -k/-i (the latter again with weakening of a preceding consonant).

Verbs
• Most verbs show a two-way perfective/imperfective stem-alternation, formed by a variety of strategies. These can either be used unmarked or combined with additional suffixes for more specific meanings. In the glossary the imperfective stem is given first followed by the perfective stem if there is one.
• Verbs may inflect for the person and/or number of one of their arguments – the only such inflection found in the text is the 3rd person definite -k/-I (where the latter causes a weakening of the preceding consonant (see above).
• Verbs may also take suffixes for tense/aspect and voice. Of the former only the progessive -ku is found in the text, while of the latter only the inverse -ja, causative -rry and applicative -gon/-go + stengthening are found.
• Verbal negation is achieved by the prefix pan-, with the coda nasal assimilating to a following consonant’s place of articulation.
• There is also a perfective and an imperfective participle, with only the imperfective -rt being found in the text. These suffixes appear before person markers but after all other suffixes.
• Finally, verbs stems may be reduplicated to form an intensive meaning, e.g. sùsu-sùsu “cooked to perfection”.

Others
• There is no “adjective” class, all such words being functionally equivalent to nouns, being able to head a noun phrase and precede their head noun, qualifying it. Demonstratives behave in the same way.

Syntax
• The languages is verb-final and zero-copula.
• Noun phrases are head-final as well, but the ordering of noun phrases in the clause is relatively free, being determined by discourse factors.
• There are no overt conjunctions in Frislandian; independent verbs, participles and simple apposition fulfil all the roles required.
shimobaatar - Visigothic
The time is right. The elders stand up, and go to the standing megaliths before dawn. A cloud is lying heavily over their village, but apart from that, it is cold, the sun is shining, and the sky holds no other clouds. The elders stand in silence at the lake's edge, turn around, and make their eyes look at a star. In their wisdom, they know the reason for the people's sadness, the meaning of the frightening reason, and the other shining reason they are looking for.

Çata mel yst rich. Ços fierñonas ostánan ya gagan du çana estánanes megáliçanes fuera uerora. Yene micile milma ligeç ufar uique sinata, ac allalicos, yta tueyeç cald, ço sun escíneç, ya ça himine ni haldeç ançarana milmanes. Ços fierñonas estánan yn selénç at ço marca af çana xu, austánan, ya oxúhan ana yena eschérnon miç uegona sinas. Miç froden sina, ym uiton çana brunan af ço adjon af ço xuda, ço bamua af çana ajanon brunan, ya çana ançarana escínan brunan çane ym soçan.
Spoiler:
ac - (conj.) but, however
adjon - (n.) sadness, misery, suffering, trouble
af - (prep.) of
ajanan - (v.) to frighten, to scare
allalicos - (adv.) otherwise
ana - (prep.) at, towards
ançarana - (adj.) other
at - (prep.) at, by
austánan - (v.) to turn around, to turn back
bamua - (n.) sign, symbol, meaning, significance
brunan - (n.) spring, fountain, reason, source, origin
ça, çana, çata, ço, ços - (art.) forms of the definite article "the"
çane - (pro.) a form of the relative pronoun "that, which"
cald - (adj.) cold
du - (prep.) of
eschérnon - (n.) star
escínan - (v.) to shine
estánan - (v.) to stand
fierñonas - (n.) elders
froden - (n.) wisdom, knowledge
fuera - (prep.) in front of, before
gagan - (v.) to go
haldan - (v.) to hold, to contain
himine - (n.) heaven
ligan - (v.) to lie (in the physical sense, not "to tell untruths"
marca - (n.) edge, border, coast
miç - (prep.) with, using
mel - (n.) time, moment, instance
megáliçanes - (n.) megaliths
micile - (adj.) large, big
milma - (n.) cloud
milmanes - (n.) cloud (plural oblique)
ni - (part.) the negation particle "not"
ostánan - (v.) to stand up
oxúhan - (v.) to look
rich - (adj.) right, correct, appropriate, opportune
selénç - (n.) silence, quiet
sina, sinas, sinata - (pro.) forms of the 3p possessive pronoun "their"
soçan - (v.) to search for, to seek
sun - (n.) sun
tueyan - (v.) to do, to make (also used to describe temperatures and weather)
uegona - (n.) eyes
uerora - (n.) dawn, daybreak
ufar - (prep.) over, above
uitan - (v.) to know
uique - (n.) village, town, settlement
xu - (n.) lake
xuda - (n.) people, nation
ya - (conj.) and
yena, yene - (art.) forms of the indefinite article "a, an"
ym - (pro.) nominative form of the 3p pronoun "they"
yn - (prep.) in
yst - (v.) is (3s present active indicative of "to be")
yta - (pro.) nominative form of the 3s pronoun "it"

The language is rather strictly SVO. Phrases tend to be head-final, but a notable exception is that possessive pronouns/adjectives come after the nouns they modify.

The verbs listed above are infinitives, suffixed with -an. Verbs are conjugated for a wide variety of persons, numbers, tenses, moods, voices, and so on, but only a few forms are relevant to this text. The third person singular present active indicative is marked with -eç in place of the infinitive ending, the third person plural present active indicative is either identical to the infinitive or suffixed with -on in place of the infinitive, and the forms of the present participle found in the text are either suffixed with -on, -an, or -anes in place of the infinitive ending. The only non-infinitive verb listed above is the third person singular present active indicative form of "to be" (so, "is"), which is highly irregular.

Nouns, adjectives, and other "determiners" (including participles), decline for case, number, and gender. Because most nominals that appear in the text only appear once or twice, only the relevant forms are listed above.
Kiwikami - Final Translation
The moment is right. The elders stand, and they go to the standing megaliths before dawn. A large cloud is lying over their village, but otherwise, it is cold, the sun is shining, and the heavens do not hold other clouds. The elders stand in silence by the coast of the lake; they turn around, and look with their eyes towards a star. With their wisdom, they know the origin of the suffering of the people, the significance of this frightening origin, and the other shining spring that they search for.



Some things I find marvelous:
  • 11 o'clock > 4th day part > night > dawn/sunrise > "the time is bright" > “the time is good” > "the moment is right"
  • The maid and gentleman merging eventually into a conglomerate "elders".
  • The sun was demoted to a moon, then turned into some other star.
  • The beautiful man became an angry man, then a sad man, and then everyone was miserable.
  • The brief big-handedness of the villagers, which turned into largeness of the clouds.
  • Suddenly there are megaliths.
Last edited by kiwikami on Fri 16 Mar 2018, 07:40, edited 3 times in total.
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Parlox » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:54

Actually the tables were part of Jackk's Duban language, not Lozkazmat.

The meanings changed pretty drastically. The big handedness was my fault, it seems i messed up quite a bit when translating Duban.
  • :con: Bàsupan, (Coming soon)
  • :con: Stellendor
  • :con: Chavajau,
  • :con: Oddúhath Claire,
  • :con: Molvanian
  • :con: Rh'ae,
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Reyzadren » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 07:04

Is it possible to move the griuskant conscript out from the spoiler box? Right now, it looks like it gives the false impression that it is written with the abecedarian script. Though, I understand if you choose not to do so due to consistency reasons.

Great job everyone! Also, your summary is indeed marvelous [B)]
Last edited by Reyzadren on Sat 24 Feb 2018, 07:06, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by kiwikami » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 07:05

Parlox wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:54
Actually the tables were part of Jackk's Duban language, not Lozkazmat.
Fixed!
Parlox wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:54
The meanings changed pretty drastically. The big handedness was my fault, it seems i messed up quite a bit when translating Duban.
Following the link, it seems Jackk has an impressively extensive dictionary, so I think some big changes there aren't unexpected simply due to the wealth of possibilities for translation. Also, the hand part came from fo, right? It looks like the gloss actually had fa there originally; not sure whose end it was on, but typos produce some excellently original mistranslations! (I initially thought "time was bright" > "time was right" must have come from a typo, but it actually got there semantically through "time was good".)

Duban gloss:
Spoiler:
Cu diri, sow ziem avua qu’ittu neugmosse qu’ittu maxo os wed watega poyo.
time sun-obl | exist man kind at inside bedroom at inside house 3s.gen with lake-obl near-obl
At dawn, the kind man was in the bedroom in his house near a lake.

Da bozed zi daut wed ruobec; fo roun ommuvoin qu’ittu maxo zus, sitton zu se ruop.
not.be morning all none with fog || hand big villager-p.obl at inside house 3p.gen | watch 3p ipfv cloud.
The morning wasn't at all foggy; lots of the villager in their houses were watching the clouds.

Moc o ziem avua gadoddi obe nest, fa but yon eppe mu fuarca.
put pfv man kind window out open | to goal seen irr moon shining
The kind man open the window, so he could see the shining moon.

Ziem biof mo yur, a os bade roun, mo an ose mir o mu sibgaube.
Man old and good, be 3s.a sad big | and do 3s.obl mir pfv moon distraction
The good old man was very sad, but the moon distracted him.
Reyzadren wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 07:04
Is it possible to move the griuskant conscript out from the spoiler box? Right now, it looks like it gives the false impression that it is written with the abecedarian script. Though, I understand if you choose not to do so due to consistency reasons.

Great job everyone! [B)]
Will do!
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Ser » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 08:49

I like the overall aesthetics of Ngäliv Ëra, both in phonology and grammar. It reminds me of one of my abandoned projects at least... Although the syntax of Ngäliv Ëra is significantly more f*cked up, in a good way. [:)]

I must say I lol'd when I saw Fluffy8x's conlang presentation in actual Markdown format.
Last edited by Ser on Sat 24 Feb 2018, 09:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Dormouse559 » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 08:58

It's interesting how the story gradually switched into present tense. As far as I could tell, bbbourq's text switched to present tense in the third sentence, which maybe was a misinterpretation on my part. Anyway, that understanding was what I based my translation on. Then, in the next translation, the third sentence switched back to past. And at some point from Frislander to shimo, the whole text moved into the present.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Iyionaku » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 10:38

kiwikami, apparently I am the only one who has not sent you the description. In the last relay, nobody did that, so that buffles me a little...

I just sent you the description. Would you kindly update the post for me? Thanks!
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Iyionaku » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 10:51

Reyzandren wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:23
The old beautiful lord with grey hair sees a thingamajig.
loglorn wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:23
An old beautiful chief saw something.
Yeah... I propably would have handled it that way too.
kiwikami wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:49
The beautiful man became an angry man, then a sad man, and then everyone was miserable.
I feel a little bad for changing the man from 'beautiful' to 'angry' - poor guy! I just hope that there is no parallel universe somehow where now a maid changed into a miserable man and vanished...

What happened is that: The noun phrase DzêtaRedfang provided me was xãiyë obrämøkä yã fläbmøkä eu üþmøkä.

xãiyë = chief
obrämøkä = old
fläbmøkä = bloody
üþmøkä = hot

From the particles in that phrase, I somehow determined that it should mean "hot-blooded old chief". Most likely this is even correct, but unlike I assumed, being in hot blood apparently is no synonym for anger in Atruozan culture, but for handsomeness. Well...
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Jackk » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 12:48

kiwikami wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 07:05
Parlox wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:54
Actually the tables were part of Jackk's Duban language, not Lozkazmat.
Fixed!
Parlox wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 06:54
The meanings changed pretty drastically. The big handedness was my fault, it seems i messed up quite a bit when translating Duban.
Following the link, it seems Jackk has an impressively extensive dictionary, so I think some big changes there aren't unexpected simply due to the wealth of possibilities for translation. Also, the hand part came from fo, right? It looks like the gloss actually had fa there originally; not sure whose end it was on, but typos produce some excellently original mistranslations! (I initially thought "time was bright" > "time was right" must have come from a typo, but it actually got there semantically through "time was good".)

Duban gloss:
Spoiler:
Cu diri, sow ziem avua qu’ittu neugmosse qu’ittu maxo os wed watega poyo.
time sun-obl | exist man kind at inside bedroom at inside house 3s.gen with lake-obl near-obl
At dawn, the kind man was in the bedroom in his house near a lake.

Da bozed zi daut wed ruobec; fo roun ommuvoin qu’ittu maxo zus, sitton zu se ruop.
not.be morning all none with fog || hand big villager-p.obl at inside house 3p.gen | watch 3p ipfv cloud.
The morning wasn't at all foggy; lots of the villager in their houses were watching the clouds.

Moc o ziem avua gadoddi obe nest, fa but yon eppe mu fuarca.
put pfv man kind window out open | to goal seen irr moon shining
The kind man open the window, so he could see the shining moon.

Ziem biof mo yur, a os bade roun, mo an ose mir o mu sibgaube.
Man old and good, be 3s.a sad big | and do 3s.obl mir pfv moon distraction
The good old man was very sad, but the moon distracted him.

The big handedness is definitely somewhat on me [:D] . I put "a big handful of the villagers" to mean "many of the villagers"... and then never explained that sense of the word fo "hand" anywhere. [xD]
Eresse anga paris cur neduc, a san teonga.
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Jackk » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 12:53

The other most obvious confusing is Moc o ziem avua gadoddi obe nest for "The kind man opened the window" when the gloss is put pfv man kind window away open. I'm sure I explained the phrasal verb moc obe "push" anywhere" :D.
There's so much interesting stuff to read through - this is why I love participating in relays!
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Re: CBB Conlang Relay IX

Post by Frislander » Sat 24 Feb 2018, 13:28

Dormouse559 wrote:
Sat 24 Feb 2018, 08:58
And at some point from Frislander to shimo, the whole text moved into the present.
Yeah that was definitely me, I think it was probably because Ronc Tyu doesn't really have tense markers, so going off of the fact that there was nothing specifically putting it in the past tense I decided to translate the whole thing as present tense.
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