Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

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Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Wed 14 Mar 2018, 23:17

Thǎm Jẽi Pòu [θam˩˧ t͡ʃei˩ pʰo˥˧] is a language spoken on the same continent as Shaniija and the Arrungian languages, that is an isolate. Niija is seperated from the Arrungian languages by the East mountains, which curve south to form the Po Mountain range, south of which, to the west of the Xañ/ Shanh river. It was for a time a client state of Niija, but now was independence, with it's own adaptation of the Niija state religion, Monhindikxatism, Dōun Jẽi Zâoq as it's state religion. It is Possibly part of a Pou-Arrungian superfamily, but I have decided as a conlanger to leave it vague.

Phonology:
/p pʰ t tʰ t͡s t͡sʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ k kʰ -ʔ/ <b p d t z c j ch g k q>
/m n ɲ ŋ/ <m n nh ng>
/ɸ θ s ʃ x/ <f th s sh h>
/ɾ~l/ <r~l>
/j w/ <y w>

/i u e o ɛ ɔ ə a/ <i u ei ou e o a aa>
/uo ua uɔ uə ie ia iɛ iə ai au əi əu/ <uou uaa uo ua iei iaa ie ia aai aau ai au>

/˥ ˧ ˩ ˧˥ ˥˧ ˩˧ ˧˩/ <V̄ V Ṽ V́ V̀ V̌ V̂>

Phonotactics:
(C)(l)V(V)(V)(N/ʔ)
l occurs only before monophthongs and <aai aau ai au>. It is considered a allophone of [ɾ], given their complementary distrubution ([l] never occuring word-initially) and evidence that some words of related semantic feilds are descended from a now-lost piece of morphology <Thlǎaunh> "Wild" <Rǎaunh> "To bite". /ʔ/ is only contrasitive as a coda, and can only occur with the following tones: /˩ ˩˧ ˧˩/
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Thu 15 Mar 2018, 00:45

Thǎm Jẽi Pòu is an isolating language. I will present the structure of the noun phrase, but things will only be clear once I post the structure of the verb phrase and the structure of indicative utterances.
The noun has no indication of plurality, unless it is indefinite. Nouns are usually monosyllabic.
After the noun comes the adjective, if neccesary, unless the adjective is a stative verb, which will be discussed in a later post.
After the adjective comes the article. The indefinite article for singular nouns is Êiq, the numeral for "One" For plural nouns, it is Raa, which literally means "some". The definite article depends on whether the object is near, medioproximal, or distant, as these are also the deictic pronouns. They are, respectively, Wõu (Uou, but without an onset is written with a <w>.), Diâang, and Púa.
After this comes the case markers. I will exclude locative markers for now.
The Ergative is Ngâa
The Dative is Jua
The Instrumental is Zǔ
The genitive is Jẽi

Thus:
Thǎm glàau wõu zǔ
language great this INSTR
"through the pure language"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Thu 15 Mar 2018, 21:46

The genitive phrase:
Except for languages, where the order is revered, due to Shaniija influence (Sha+=language Niija=Endonym, the Shaniija name for Thǎm Jẽi Pòu is Shapoo) the order is Possessor Jẽi Possessed.
U jẽi Pǎq
mountain GEN child
"Child of the mountain"

Zâoq jẽi mluāan
path GEN fire
"Path of fire'

Dōun Jẽi Zâoq
god(s) GEN path
"Way of Divinity"

The language exception is regular, and is explained in the Dōun Jẽi Zâoq scriptures as that the abstract concept of language is more important then the Ethnic group.
Thǎm Jẽ Nījã
"Shaniija"

Thǎm Jẽ Ǎ Thlúng Ngī
"Arrungi"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Sun 18 Mar 2018, 18:55

The conjugation "and" is the word <Nguā>.
The Pronouns only have singular forms:
1P: Nguó
2P: Nhãq
3P: Hiém
They can be pluralised in the following ways:
3P and 2P with the adjective "Koun" "all:
Hiém koun
"Them"
Lit.
"All of him or her"

The 1P depends on whether it is inclusive or exclusive. If the former:
Nguó nguā nhãq
"Us"
Litterally
"Me and you"

Exclusive:
Nguó nguā hiém
Litterally:
"Me and him/her"

The latter may take <koun> if their is more then one other person then the speaker, however, in colloquial speech, this is not required.
There is also a Formal set of Pronouns, but this will be discussed latter.

Numbers 1-10:
1.Êiq
2. Nhí
3. Sûm
4. Shiaa
5. Ngãaq
6. Tlǔq
7. Dǔn
8. Kiẽ
9. Gǔ
10. Chù

The teens are formed by Chù nguā N:
Chù nguā kiẽ
"Eighteen"

The tens are formed like this:
20: Nhí chù
30: Sûm chù
etc.
Numbers in between are formed like this:
Shiaa chù nguā nhí
"42"

Numbers are treated like adjectives, and are assumed to be indefinite unless the definite article follows:

Dōun dǔn wõu zǔ
"[With the help] [lit. Through] the Seven gods."

There are two verbs of importence:
The Copula: Shâ
Pǎq diâang shâ dōun
"That child is a god"

The existensial verb: Yēinh
U wõu yēinh
"This mountain exists"

The Instrumental case particle may be used as a comparitive case, with the copula following it:
Pǎq diâang zǔ shâ dōun
"That child is like a god"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Sun 18 Mar 2018, 20:08

The verb is unmarked, but aspect particles are put at the end of an utterance.However, they may be repeated after the verb for emphasis, or with a negative (see below) and certain adverbs. Except in the Perfective-Conclusive and Expierencial, which are assumed to be past tense, utterances without a adverb of time are assumed to be present tense.
Perfective-Conclusive: Yàa
Progressive: Õu
Habitual: Ǎim
Experential: Plǎq

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā chuãaq êiq yàa
child great that ERG kill chicken one PERF
"That older child has killed a chicken"

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā chuãaq êiq õu
"That older child is killing a chicked"

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā chuãaq raa ǎim
"that older child often kills chickens"

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā chuãaq êiq plǎq
"That older child alraedy killed a chicken"

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā yàa chuãaq êiq yàa
"That older child has indeed killed a chicken"

Pǎq glàau puá ngâa chliā ǎim chuãaq raa ǎim
"That older child is a chicken killer"

Negatives are formed by the particle Mû before the verb:
Pǎq glàau puá ngâa mû chliā ǎim chuãaq raa ǎim
"That older child does not often kill chickens "
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Tue 20 Mar 2018, 17:03

The Verb Phrase, Part 1:
There are two important topics in understanding the verb phrase: Co-Verbs, and Verb-Object verbs.
I will treat the latter first, as IMO it makes the first easier to understand, but I listed Co-Verbs first as they are more important.
Verb-Object verbs are verbs that take an object within the verb phrase itself. This object is usually not "the" object of the sentence, which is unmarked, but is followed by zǔ "Instrumental".
Let's look at one of these verbs:
Klāu "to look; to see"

Nguó ngâa klāu nhãq
1P ERG see 2P
"I see you"

But with Za "Letter(s)" it means "to read"

Nguó ngâa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
1P ERG see letter INSTR scroll INDEF EXP
"I alraedy read a scroll"

Co-Verbs are verbs that cannot occur without another (main) verb, which may be a Verb-Object Verb.
Common Co-Verbs:
Rĩq "To need to"
Cléi "To want to"
Plan "to try"

Nguó ngâa rĩq klāu nhãq ǎim
"I need to see you reguraly"

Nguó ngâa cléi klāu nhãq ǎim
"I want to see you"

<Plan> has a special contruction in the perfective. When unmarked, it is assumed that the attempt was unsucessful. When followed by a repeated Yàa "PERF", it was sucsessful:
Nguó ngâa plan klāu pǎq glàau puá yàa
"I tried to see the older child, but failed"

Nguó ngâa plan klāu yàa pǎq glàau puá yàa
"I tried to see the older child, but failed.

In the progressive, or with future markers (in a later post) plan is unmarked, thugh in the former the construction <plan mû V> can express fustration in the attempt:

Nguó ngâa plan klāu pǎq glàau puá õu
"I am trying to see the older child"

Nguó ngâa plan mû klāu pǎq glàau puá õu
"I am having a hard time seeing the older child"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Tue 20 Mar 2018, 20:53

The Verb Phrase, Part 2:
Some more Co-Verbs:
Hlài- To do something very much:
Nguó ngâa hlài klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
"I alraedy intensly read a scroll"
or
"I alraedy studied a scroll"

Kuǒung- Repeatidly
Nguó ngâa kuǒung plan klāu yàa pǎq glàau puá yàa
"I already tried to see the older child many times"
(Yes, Co-Verbs can stack)

Ém- possible/can

Nguó ngâa ém plan klāu pǎq glàau puá
"It is possible to see the older child.

To negate Coverbs, you put Mû before it:
Mû ém klāu za zǔ nguó
"I cannot read"

However, splittling the Verb and Co-Verb with mû, has a different meaning:
Ém mû klāu za zǔ nguó
"It is possible for me not to read"

Reduplication:
Verbs can be reduplicated to mean "somewhat; a little" Verb-Object verbs are split:
Ém klāu klāu za zǔ nguó
"I can read a bit"

Nguó ngâa klāu klāu nhãq ǎim
"I often glance at you"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Thu 22 Mar 2018, 20:59

Time references:
This are ussually put after the verb, but Transitive sentences often front them before the agent if emphasis is needed- though high class speech repeats it after the verb.

Time Reference Lexemes may be divided into three "Levels", that occur in this order: Periods (Day, Noon, Dawn, Evening, Hour, Month, Week, Year etc.) Deictic-Time (This-X, Previous-X, Next-X, Every X, The X before the Previous X etc.) and Chronological-Time (Before, after During etc.). This can be used as a limited tense system, but is context-sensitive; If someone said now at quarter to 4:00 PM, "Before this [day's] noon" it would be obviously past tense, but if it was uttered at 11:00 AM, it would be ambigious, while at either time "After this [day's] Evening" is Future.

Periods:
Hour: Blāam
Day: Nhoum
Noon: Hãaq
Dawn: Lóu
Evening: Shiǎm
etc.

Deixis:
this-X: Jĩ
Previous-X: Mluàang
Next-X: Fiêiq
Every X: Klā

Chronological-Time
Before: Rái
After: Chûq
During: Gienh

Thus:
Nguó ngâa klāu klāu hãaq jĩ rái nhãq yàa
"I have glanced at you before today's noon"

Hãaq jĩ rái nguó ngâa klāu klāu nhãq yàa
"It was before today's noon I had glanced at you"

Hãaq jĩ rái nguó ngâa klāu klāu hãaq jĩ rái nhãq yàa
"Yea, it was before today's noon I hath glanced at thee"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Tue 03 Apr 2018, 02:01

Questions:
WH-Questions feature WH fronting, as the case particles show the the semantic use of the noun it replaces.
WH-words:
Māa- What
Mí-Who
Thâain-When


Māa nguó ngâa klāu za zǔ plǎq
what 1P ERG see letter INSTR EXP
"What have I already read?"

Mí ngâa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
who ERG see letter INSTR scroll INDEF EXP
"Who already read a scroll?"





Thâain nguó ngâa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
when 1P ERG see letter INSTR scroll INDEF EXP
"At what time had I already read a scroll?"

If the answer is suspected, it is placed after the WH-word:
Mí nguó ngâa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
who 1P ERG see letter INSTR scroll INDEF EXP
"Have I already read a scroll?"


Polar Questions are usually formed by MAIN.VERB mû MAIN.VERB:

Nhãq ngâa hlài klāu mû klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
"Have you already studied a scroll?"

Repeating the full verb clause with mû between the reduplicated phrases can mean:
A. Abrupt; Interrogation
B. Rhetorical

Nhãq ngâa hlài klāu za zǔ mû hlài klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
"Have you [indeed] already studied a scroll?!"
or
"You have already studied a scroll, right?

A polite polar question replaces the Verb-not-verb structure with placing the WH-word māa before the main verb:
Nhãq ngâa hlài māa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq plǎq
"Have thee already studied a scroll, sir?"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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Re: Thǎm Jẽi Pòu

Post by Shemtov » Thu 05 Apr 2018, 23:37

Locations:
Locations follow the location noun, and act like the case particles, however, as they can be embedded in clauses which take cases, I do not consider them to be "real" case particles.
Inessive: Zlǎi
Superessive : Shīng
Subessive: Rũq
Proximative: Hánh
Lative: Tu
Ablative: Má
Superlative: Lãq
Sublative: Tlěi
Perlative: Bà

Examples:
Hãaq jĩ rái nguó ngâa klāu klāu nhãq yàa slãq zlǎi
"It was before today's noon, in the field, that I had glanced at you"

Nguó ngâa klāu za zǔ glǎaq êiq, nhoum fiêiq gienh, u wõu tlěi, õu
"I will read the scroll tommorow, [while] descending this mountain"

Nguó klāu za pǎq diâang, u shīng, jua, shiǎm mluàang gienh.
1P see letter that child mountain SUPERESS DAT evening PREV during
"I read to the child on the mountain last night"
Many children make up, or begin to make up, imaginary languages. I have been at it since I could write.
-JRR Tolkien
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