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PostPosted: Sat 04 Sep 2010, 21:57 
rupestrian
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Joined: Sat 04 Sep 2010, 19:59
Posts: 10
¡Agêtinde l-Avorentas errakémenteo!

Welcome to the Avorenta language lessons!

These are the new lessons following a new method to teach you my conlang. I try to make it as easy as possible, but if something is still unclear, please tell me! I also look forward to your opinion about the language and to your ideas about the content of the lessons besides the grammar part. So feel free to post the sentences and words which you'd like to know in Avorenta!

More information
(You can find some sound samples too on the "Translations, texts" page)

Ille hi mijog émente ha mijog fódagum folkende ćo geniffirez táj i mes kaubum. Táfe genevigynn randiśśat, ak amb ö-vofor sítle gan jauze, ćimbrúti máj gecóren! I byllindum eś víte l-errákiri t-ivemu l-émentiss' errakniffau fart ö-gýrau nogazíri. ¡Fixi qweltat setiriz i córekku he corgu, famu mítivi qweren avorentat!

Mér śir
(I "Bettélege, verekke" h-elwixóro ćevil garqentoru si nógunni)


So, let's start, good luck - ¡Felt ö-ligrum! ;-)

ANX ÉMENT - FIRST LESSON

Alphabet and pronunciation - Orvidjúl et úcórán
Avorenta is written in its own script called Háfrigvotán, but now to make it more user-friendly, I'll use the official romanisation.

Vowels:
Short: a â e ê i o ö u y(ü)
/ Q a E e i o 2 u y /
Long: á é í ó ő ú ý(ű)
/ a: e: i: o: 2: u: y: /

- Be careful: length (as well as the a-â and e-ê distinction) is very important because it can distinguish words with a totally different meaning.
- Noöne will kill you if you pronounce "a" /a/.
- ö is /@/ as a linking vowel (eg. word initial ö-).

Consonants:
b c ć d dz f g h ch j k l m n ń p q r s ś t v w x z
/ b t_s t_S d d_z f g h C,x j k l m n J p k,t_s r s S t v w ks z /

- Long consonants are doubled (eg. ff, gg, cch) and are to be pronounced long.
- q = [t_s] before e, ê, é, i and í but [k] elsewhere.
- ch = [x] after a, â, á, o, ó, u and ú but [C] elsewhere.

The alternative spelling
If your computer doesn't support accented letters, you can use this one.
- â, ê = a6, e6
- ć, ń, ś = c6, n6, s6 (6 comes from the Cyrillic letter ь)
- ö = 8
- Long vowels are followed by a colon: a: e: i: o: 8: u: y:

The Háfrigvotán script
Image
Image

_________________
¡Gin útoffiz illum pegáń ollozum ćo geniffiz avorentat ö-śaraden e voten! ¡Yhediz il Avorentas Olliridum!
Don't miss this great opportunity to learn to speak and write in Avorenta! Visit the Guide to Avorenta!


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PostPosted: Sun 05 Sep 2010, 11:11 
rupestrian
rupestrian
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Joined: Sat 04 Sep 2010, 19:59
Posts: 10
2ND LESSON - DAUX ÉMENT

Now you'll be able to introduce yourself in Avorenta.
Read the following dialogue:

- Avé!
Hello!
- Avé! ¿For i missild?
Hello! What's your name?
- I misseld Kajsár Júliju. ¿I tis?
My name is Iulius Caesar. The yours?
- I mes: Brúte. ¿Ós bíli?
The mine: Brutus. Where do you live?
- Rómio bíle. ¿E ti?
I live in Rome. And you?
- Me si. ¿Vil hazum ájdi?
Me too. How old are you?
- Tortum. ¿Fil erráku śaradi?
Thirty. Which languages do you speak?
- Rómawum e vécidátat avorentum śarade.
I speak Latin and of course Avorenta.

Now, let's have a look at each sentence:

- ¿For i missild? - I misseld Kajsár Júliju. (what the name-your? The name-my Caesar Iulius)
First you can see that there's no equivalent of 'is' in the sentence. It would be 'ro' in Avorenta, but it's almost always omitted.
Missild vs. misseld: Possession can be expressed by suffixes. They can also be 'I tis mis' and 'I mes mis' but they would sound a bit strange.
And finally, family name always precedes the given name.
This part could be said like this:
- ¿Qwin ö-ri? - Kajsár Júliju re. (who LINKING-be-SG2? Caesar Iulius be-SG1)

- ¿Ós bíli? - Rómio bíle. (where reside-SG2? Rome-INE reside-SG1)
Avorenta has 9 locative cases. Here the Inessive case is used, which has the suffix -io in singular.

- ¿Vil hazum ájdi? - Tortum. (how_many year-SG.ACC have-SG1? 30-ACC)
Here notice that 'year' is singular. After numbers or the question word Vil every noun (even countable ones) are always in singular.

- ¿Fil erráku śaradi? - Rómawum e vécidátat avorentum śarade. (which language-PL.ACC speak-SG2? Rome-ADJ-ACC and nature-ADJ-ADV Avorenta-ACC speak-SG1)

Grammar
Avorenta is an agglutinating language which use 18 cases and a large number of formative suffixes.
Cases
In this lesson, you encountered 4 cases. These are the most frequently used ones.

- Nominative case: In singular, words can end in a consonant or a, e, i, u. In plural, words get the suffix -e.
Code:
hutt (house)     hutte (houses)
tága (dog)       táge (dogs)
esne (pig)       esné (pigs)
zylti (thing)    zylte (things)
mínu (human)     míne (humans)
You can see that the plural suffix (and all suffixes starting with a vowel) deletes the final vowel of the word.
Because of the Principle of Easy Pronunciation (hereafter PEP) esne+e becomes esné. This rule is applied every times when a one-vowel suffix is added to a word with an identical ending.

There are some nouns which change the length of the final syllable before suffixes. This is marked in the dictionary form eg. mis, -sse.
Code:
mis (name)       misse (names)
errak (language) erráke (languages)
PEP > The diphtong AU (or EU) becomes AW- (EW-) and final S becomes Z-.
Code:
rómau (Roman)    rómawe (Romans)
katas (book)     kataze (books)


-Accusative case: Singular: -um Plural: -u
in formal speech, you have to use this case after the verb ájd (have) but in informal speech the nominative case can be used instead.
Code:
huttum     huttu
tágum      tágu
esnum      esnu
zyltum     zyltu
mínum      mínú (PEP!)


-Genitive case: Singular: -(i)s Plural: -(i)sse
PEP > after consonants the linking vowel I is to be used.
Code:
huttis     huttisse
tágas      tágasse
esnes      esnesse
zyltis     zyltisse
mínus      mínusse
You found two possessive pronouns in the dialogue: mes (my, mine) and tis (your, yours). These are in fact the personal pronouns me and ti in genitive case.

-Inessive case: Singular: -io Plural: -eo
This case was used in the first line of the introduction: errakémenteo (in language lesson) and in the dialogue: Rómio (in Rome).
Code:
huttio     hutteo
tágio      tágeo
esnio      esneo
zyltio     zylteo
mínio      míneo


Verbs
The conjugation makes it clear which person does something, so there's no need to use the personal pronouns. Now we deal with the conjugation in singular:
Code:
I reside: bíle    You reside: bíli
I have: ájde      You have: ájdi
I am: re          You are: ri
As you can see from these examples, the SG1 suffix is -e and the SG2 suffix is -i. By the way, why not learn the SG+ form too, because it's so simple: there is no suffix!
So the conjugation of the verbs above:
Code:
SG1   bíle   ájde   re
SG2   bíli   ájdi   ri
SG3   bíl    ájd    ro (PEP!)

The possesive suffixes contain the same vowel as the verbal suffix of 'r-' before -ld:
Code:
SG1   -eld   misseld (my name)
SG2   -ild   missild (your name)
SG3   -old   missold (its name)


HOMEWORK
Task 1)
Introduce yourself following this example.
I misseld Attila. Aqwinikio bíle. Tinoj hazum ájde. Hunnigum, beretáńum, rómawum et avorentum śarade.
Don't forget to transcribe the name of your town and your name phonetically (New York > Ńú Jork, John > Dźon)!
As for language names and numbers, please ask me, numbers will be in the next lesson.

Task 2)
Translate these sentences:
1. Who is Iulius Caesar? (who Caesar Iulius?)
2. Where is Rome? (where is Rome - here you can use the verb 'to be')
3. My dog is thirty years old. (The my dog 30 year-ACC has.)

_________________
¡Gin útoffiz illum pegáń ollozum ćo geniffiz avorentat ö-śaraden e voten! ¡Yhediz il Avorentas Olliridum!
Don't miss this great opportunity to learn to speak and write in Avorenta! Visit the Guide to Avorenta!


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PostPosted: Sun 19 Sep 2010, 15:06 
rupestrian
rupestrian
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Joined: Sat 04 Sep 2010, 19:59
Posts: 10
3RD LESSON - TROX ÉMENT

- Agête!
Hello.
(greet-SG1)

- Felt tikum! Éda ri?
Good afternoon. How are you?
(good day-ACC. How be-SG2?)

- Bêre feltat! Píl r' i mes dautex ö-főrtik.
Very well! Today is my 20th birthday.
(very good-ADV. Today is the I-ACC 20-th LV-be_born-day)

- Dahazu! Illum gecornibálonn lájchem! Orrowemá hi tavêniśta?
Congratulations! We must celebrate this! Shall we go to the pub?
(Congatulation-PL.ACC. This-ACC PERF-celebration-VERB-INF must-PL1incl! Away-go-PL1incl-FUT the drink-PLACE-ILL?)

- Pit. A ferenelden si śe pedonumó - daweg ro. I tis főrtik ênn ö-ro?
Yes. We've already planned to do so with a friend of mine - it's Tuesday. When is your birthday?
(yes. A friend-my-COM also this_way plan-VERB-PL1excl-PAST - Tuesday is. The you-GEN be_born-day when LV-is?)

- Dauximênd tidauxak. Forak mílemá?
On 12th February. When shall we meet?
(2-th-month 12-th-TEMP. What-TEMP meet-PL1incl-FUT?)

- Aświlis gadak.
At 8 pm.
(evening-GEN 8-TEMP)

- Ot. Ájfýlti!
OK. Goodbye.
(OK. re-see-(NOUN)-TERM)

- Ćys.
Goodbye.

As I promised, now we deal with the numbers. Look at these words from the dialogue:
Code:
dautex        dau-te-x         20th
dau           dau              2
daweg         dau-eg           Tuesday (2nd day)
dauximênd     dau-x-(i)-mênd   February (2nd month)
tidauxak      ti-dau-x-ak      on the 12th

So, everything which is related to the number 2 is formed with the following affixes:
-x: ordinal number
: fraction
-te: ×10 (...ty)
ti-: +10 (...teen)
-eg: days of the week
-ximênd: month

Code:
      Cardinal   Ordinal    Fraction   Month        Day
0     zyr        zyx        zyć        -            -
1     an         anx        anć        anximênd     anneg
2     dau        daux       dauć       dauximênd    daweg
3     tor        trox/torx  torć       troximênd    torreg
4     cet        cex        ceć        ceximênd     cetteg
5     fim       fix        fić         fiximênd     fitteg
6     sit       six        sić         siximênd     sitteg
7     völl      vö(ll)x    vö(ll)ć     vöximênd     völleg
8     gad       gax        gać         gaximênd
9     noj       no(j)x     no(j)ć      noximênd
10    tich      tix        tić         tiximênd
11    tian      tianx      tianć       tianximênd
12    tidau     tidaux     tidauć      tidauximênd
...
20    daute     dautex     dauteć
30    torte     tortex     torteć
...
80    gatte     gattex     gatteć  (PEP!)
90    nojte     nojtex     nojteć
100   ynt       ynx        ynć
1000  epaz      epax       epać
10^6  bill      bi(ll)x    bi(ll)ć



Jépútá...
To be continued...

_________________
¡Gin útoffiz illum pegáń ollozum ćo geniffiz avorentat ö-śaraden e voten! ¡Yhediz il Avorentas Olliridum!
Don't miss this great opportunity to learn to speak and write in Avorenta! Visit the Guide to Avorenta!


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PostPosted: Fri 28 Jan 2011, 23:21 
sinic
sinic

Joined: Fri 31 Dec 2010, 20:17
Posts: 289
I'd like to see a sample of the script besides the IPA chart.

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Magnae clunes mihi placent, nec possum de hac re mentiri. -Multomixtor

:usa: :esp: :zho: :lat:


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