How does reduplication arise? Do different kinds of reduplication (onset only, onset+nucleus, nucleus+coda, etc.) come into being differently? How is grammatical or derivational meaning assigned to reduplication? Does the reduplication typically affect only the root, or also derivational andor inflexional affixes?
In Hebrew, at least modern one, reduplication can sometimes be witnessed occurring in various additive suffixes, or roots for that matter.
For example, the word for "bitter" is /mar/. Because bi-roots aren't allowed in Hebrew, people just took m-r, duplicated it into m-r-m-r, and got a root, from which we now can derive "to be bitter," "to make someone/something bitter," (bitter being both taste-wise and emotion-wise). This is very common in native Semitic or Hebrew roots, this reduplication.
Great example. How about מָרוֹר /mārôr/ "bitter herb"
Would that also be reduplication, Iron?
in Rozwi, some verbs also undergo a partial reduplication for ADJZ and NMLZ forms.
1) ADJZ form in which the first two consonants are redupled after the stem
v-z-t “to live”
veztiviza “alive, living”
d-χ-r “to approach”
deχridiχa “close at hand, imminent”
n-d-d “to give”
2) NMLZ form in which the second consonant of a stem is redupled before the stem
v-z-t “to live” : ziveztau “life”
d-χ-r “to approach” : χideχrau “approach, arrival”
n-d-d “to give” : dineddau “bequest, gift”
θ-n-d “to experience, to suffer” : niθendau “involvement”
Not all verbs do this, however. Only the ones above do this, and maybe 2~3 others (so far...)