each other

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Lao Kou
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Re: each other

Post by Lao Kou » Fri 10 Jun 2016, 15:30

Image Géarthnuns

Chök sékletsöip lés çíbrön.
DEF.PL child-NOM.PL AUX.PAST.REFL meet
The children met each other.

Rhöit lé aubüzöiez.
3PL-NOM AUX.PAST together.play
They were playing with each other.

Rhöit lés vbezçöl.
3PL-NOM AUX.PAST.REFL talk
They talked with each other.

Image Japoné語

Les 子供 oué ils ga 会tta 互ï ni.
Les caudomau oué ils ga atta tagaï ni.
[le ˈkodɔmo we i gɔ ˈat.tɔ ˈtagaj ni]
DEF.PL child TOP 3PL NOM meet-PAST with.each.other ADV
The children met each other.

Ils ga 遊ndéta 一緒 ni.
Ils ga açôndéta iccheau ni.
[i gɔ aˈsõʊ̃detɔ ɪʃˈʃoʊ̯ ni]
3PL NOM play-PROG.PAST together ADV
They were playing with each other.

Ils ga 話chi合tta 互ï ni.
Ils ga hanachiatta tagaï ni.
[i gɔ aˈnaʃiˌat.tɔ ˈtagaj ni]
3PL NOM talk.together-PAST with.each.other ADV
They talked with each other.
道可道,非常道
名可名,非常名
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Frislander
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Re: each other

Post by Frislander » Fri 10 Jun 2016, 16:18

Frislandian: There are two main ways of forming the reflexive in Frislandian. Either the reflexive may be used, or a personal pronoun referencing the subject may be used in object position in the absolutive with the subject in the ergative.

arvaan reeveeraniitson
[ˈaɾ.ʋaːn̪ ˈɾeː.ʋeː.ɾa.ˌn̪iːt̪.s̪ɔn̪]
child-PL meet.IND.PL-PST.3.PL-REFL-PRF
The children met each other.

konnen leekyrraankeen
[ˈkɔ.n̪ːɛn̪ ˈl̪eːkɨ.raːŋ.ˌkeːn̪]
NEU-PL game-do.PST.3.PL-3.PL.ERG
They were playing with each other.

taltooraniitson
[ˈt̪al̪.t̪oː.ˌɾa.n̪iːt̪.s̪ɔn̪]
speak.IND.PL-PST.3.PL-REFL-PRF
They talked with each other.
Iyionaku
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Re: each other

Post by Iyionaku » Fri 10 Jun 2016, 18:44

:con: Yélian

Yélian has two ways of expressing reciprocity: A wide amount of verbs are suppletive for a reciprocial meaning, like shown in the first sentence.

An'îyin yiucletʻi.
[anˈiːçin ʃiuˈklɛtʔi]
DEF.ANIM-child-PL PST-meet-3SG
The children meet each other.

"Ucleta" has an exclusive meaning of reciprocity, where "A meets B" would require "vala", to see.

Cen yinacʻi.
[kɛn ʃiˈnakʔi]
3PL PST-talk-3PL
There were talking to each other.

Same here; "A talks to B" would require a verb like pala, bica etc.

The much more usual way is to use the reciprocal pronoun " evaneʻi". It's used for most of the verbs, and also with prepositions.

Cen yipinʻi fecun evaneʻi.
[kɛn ʃiˈpinʔi ˈɸɛkʊn ɛvɐˈnɛʔi]
3PL PST-spielen-3PL with each-other
They were playing with each other.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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alynnidalar
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Re: each other

Post by alynnidalar » Sat 11 Jun 2016, 20:40

:con: Tirina

Toelardamir do'a tonpir.
MASC-meet-PST-PL child other
The children met each other.

To'ososanmir me ko tonpir.
MASC-play-PST.PROG-PL 3.PL.MASC with other
They were playing with each other.

Toalenahidamir me nuri tonpir. or Topilwadamir me tonpir.
MASC-talk-PST.PL 3.PL.MASC toward other or MASC-talk.to-PST.PL 3.SG.MASC.PL other
They talked with each other.

:con: Uunen

Ɂesaak semnqwe.
ɂesaa-k se-m-n-qwe
child-PL 3.PL.ABS-RECIP-first-see
The children met each other.

Sejampquuskeda.
se-jan-m-quusk-eda
3.PL.ABS-PROG-RECIP-game-do
They played with each other.

Semchaal.
se-m-chaal
3.PL.ABS-RECIP-say
They talked with each other.
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kiwikami
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Re: each other

Post by kiwikami » Tue 28 Jun 2016, 20:46

:con: Alál

Assuming that all of this meeting happens at the same time.

Lılìrrılàa adús kıs.
lı<ılì-ŕ>r-ıl-à-a da<ú>s kı<ı>s
greet<3.3PL-PL>-PST-MOM.ATEL-VOL.ACT next<ACC.DIM> child<NOM>
The children met each other.

Ḳılìrḍılḍaırıras adús raır.
ḳı<ılì-ŕ>ḍ-ıl~ḍ.aı.r~ı-ra<a>s da<ú>s ra<ı>r
entertain<3.3PL-PL>-PST~purpose~DUR.TEL-motion<VOL.ACT> next<ACC.DIM> last<NOM>
They were playing with each other.

Lılìrlılaı adús raır.
la<ılì-ŕ>l-ıl-ı-a da<ú>s ra<ı>r
speech<3.3PL-PL>-PST-DUR.TEL-VOL.ACT next<ACC.DIM> last<NOM>
They talked with each other.

You get a reflexive meaning, rather than reciprocal, with a distributive plural.

Lılìrìırılàa adús kıs.
lı<ılì-ŕ~ı.r̀ı>r-ıl-à-a da<ú>s kı<ı>s
greet<3.3PL-PL~DIST>-PST-MOM.ATEL-VOL.ACT next<ACC.DIM> child<NOM>
The children met themselves.

Lılìràılılaı adús raır.
la<ılì-ŕ~a.r̀ı>l-ıl-ı-a da<ú>s ra<ı>r
speech<3.3PL-PL~DIST>-PST-DUR.TEL-VOL.ACT next<ACC.DIM> last<NOM>
They talked to themselves.
Edit: Substituted a string instrument for a French interjection.
Iyionaku
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Re: each other

Post by Iyionaku » Mon 15 Aug 2016, 15:00

:con: Caelian

Caelian expresses reciprocity with the comitative case. The difference between "The children meet each other" and "one children meets with another one" is in the verb conjugation. For reciprocity you conjugate after 3PL>3PL to emphazise that both are doing it equally. If it was a "A does X with B" action, you'd instead conjugate after 3SG>3SG.

The verb roots used are j-kl-g (acquaintance, to meet), m-ll-s (voice, to talk) and wy-lyd-z (play, to play, playing).

Asasel Tetur sjükoklag.
[aʃaˈʒɛl tʰɛˈtʰuɾ ʒi.ʏkʰɔkˈlag]
child.PL.NOM 3PL.COM PST-meet.3PL>3PL
The children met each other.

Tet Tetur simüloklas.
[tʰɛt tʰɛˈtʰuɾ ʒimʏlɔkˈlaʃ]
3PL.NOM 3PL.COM PST-talk.3PL>3PL
They were talking to each other.

Tet Tetur siwyilyokdaz.
[tʰɛt tʰɛˈtʰuɾ ʒiʋiʎɔkˈdas]
3PL.NOM 3PL.COM PST-play.3PL>3PL
They were playing with each other.
Heaven and Earth, but I feel the color of the cake when you keep the Victoria.
I had a mantra on the moss and I had to go to bed.


Oh, and there is a [ɕ] in my name!
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Imralu
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Re: each other

Post by Imralu » Mon 15 Aug 2016, 15:58

:con: :png: Wena:

Dingo i livwe zyide.
child COP meet.AG GEN.each.other
The children meet each other.

De i bwi u me zyide.
DEF.E COP play.AG ADV accompany.AG GEN.each.other
They play with each other.

De i nge u me zyide.
DEF.E COP communicate.AG ADV accompany.AG GEN.each.other
They talk with each other.
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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Imralu
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Re: each other

Post by Imralu » Tue 30 Jan 2018, 11:55

:tan: Swahili has a derivative verb suffix to indicate reciprocality, but in situations where it can't be used, such as when it's prepositional, pamoja "together" is used.

Watoto walikutana.
watoto wa-li-kut(a)-an(a)
children(CL2) CL2-PST-meet-RECIP

The children met each other.

Walikuwa wakicheza pamoja
wa-li-ku-w(a) wa-ki-chez(a) pa-moja
CL2-PST-EXT-be CL2-SITU-play/dance CL16-one

They were playing with each other.

Walizungumza pamoja.
wa-li-zungumz(a) pa-moja
CL2-PST-converse CL16-one

They talked to/with each other.

Class 16 is the specific locative class, so pamoja essentially means "at one place".
Glossing Abbreviations: COMP = comparative, C = complementiser, ACS / ICS = accessible / inaccessible, GDV = gerundive, SPEC / NSPC = specific / non-specific, AG = agent, E = entity (person, animal, thing)
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gestaltist
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Re: each other

Post by gestaltist » Tue 30 Jan 2018, 14:17

In Nakarian, reciprocality is marked with the middle voice.

The man and the woman love each other.
Man-NOM woman-CJ love-MID IMPERF-C2.
Tàn-0 kina-ve himmaȝ-ve wò-i.
Tàn kinawe himmaṿṿe vòy.
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Adarain
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Re: each other

Post by Adarain » Tue 30 Jan 2018, 15:47

I’ll take this separate set of sentences instead to show the differences:

:eng: English
The children talked to them.
The children talked to themselves.
The children talked to each other.


:che: Swiss German
A different group is referred to by the normal third person plural pronoun. The “emphatic” pronoun ina could be used contrastively, if this is desired.
D’Kinder hen mit na gredet.

Code: Select all

d=kind-er       hen    mit  na     g-red-et
DEF.PL=child=PL AUX.PL with 3p.DAT PTCP-speak-PTCP
“The children spoke with them”

For reflexive, the reflexive pronoun sich is used in conjunction with the adverb(?) selber.
D’Kinder hen mit sich selber gredet.

Code: Select all

d=kind-er       hen    mit  sich   selber g-red-et
DEF.PL=child=PL AUX.PL with 3.REFL self   PTCP-speak-PTCP
“The children spoke with themselves”

For reciprocal, the above construction without selber would be alright, but at least in this example, changing the preposition as well is more natural.
D’Kinder hen unter sich gredet.

Code: Select all

d=kind-er       hen    unter sich g-red-et
DEF.PL=child=PL AUX.PL under self PTCP-speak-PTCP
“The children spoke among themselves”

:con: Mesak
If both participants are distinct groups, a third person pronoun in the dative is used here.
Sísvs ísvñ bañvi.

Code: Select all

sís-v-s      ísi-v-ñ  bañ-v-i
child-PL-ABS 3-PL-DAT speak-PL-3
“The children speak to them”

Reflexives are generally conveyed by the reflexive voice, which transforms transitives to intransitives. This is problematic for a verb like “speak” which is intransitive, as Mesak is very strict about transitivity. So in order to apply it, first an applicative has to be used, raising the dative to direct object. Then the reflexive voice is applied to the derived verb, turning it intransitive again.
Sísvs bañuñgsavi.

Code: Select all

sís-v-s      bañ-uñg-sa-v-i
child-PL-ABS speak-DAT-REFL-PL-3
“The children to-self-speak.”

Reciprocals are marked exactly the same as reflexives, except that the NP is marked with the ergative rather than the absolutive. This is in fact the only place in Mesak’s grammar where ergative is used outside its normal usage case.
Ñ-isísnvs bañuñgsavi.

Code: Select all

ñ=i-sís-nv-s          bañ-uñg-sa-v-i
ERG=3-child-SG>PL-ABS speak-DAT-REFL-PL-3
“The agentive children to-self-speak.”
and yes the ergative construction is dumb but it’s staying
At kveldi skal dag lęyfa,
Konu es bręnnd es,
Mæki es ręyndr es,
Męy es gefin es,
Ís es yfir kømr,
Ǫl es drukkit es.
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Reyzadren
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Re: each other

Post by Reyzadren » Fri 02 Feb 2018, 01:08

:con: griuskant (without the conscript)

fuiroek shoda.
/'fuirɯk 'ʃɔda/
child meet-V

fuiroek oezi zaula.
/'fuirɯk 'ɯzi 'zaula/
child together-A play-V

fuiroek oezi kiga.
/'fuirɯk 'ɯzi 'kiga/
child together-A talk-V
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k1234567890y
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Re: each other

Post by k1234567890y » Tue 10 Apr 2018, 21:46

:con: Lonmai Luna

on hala ice sital sedir
the PL child meet each.other
The children met each other.

dala-dala nat seplar fodo sedir
3.PL PROG play with each.other
They were playing with each other.

dala-dala nat seplar sedak
3.PL PROG play mutually
They were playing with each other.

dala-dala lule de ili sedir
3.PL talk INDEF to each.other
They talked with each other.

dala-dala lule de sedak
3.PL talk INDEF mutually
They talked with each other.
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Dormouse559
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Re: each other

Post by Dormouse559 » Sun 13 May 2018, 19:32

The sentences mix and match strategies Silvish has for reciprocals. When the verb is transitive and implies reciprocity (as opposed to reflexivity), just a reciprocal/reflexive pronoun is used, as in the first sentence. When the verb is intranstive and requires the preposition a "to", a reciprocal pronoun is paired with a variant of the phrase l' é a l' eûtri "one to the other". That's what happened in the third sentence. Finally, when an intransitive verb takes a preposition other than a, a variant on the phrase l' é [preposition] l' eûtri "one [preposition] the other" is used on its own, as in the second sentence.

:con: Silvish

Li-z enfanti eu sse sont rencontrêyi.
[li.zɛ̃ˈfɑ̃n.ti œs.se.sɔ̃n.tʁɛ̃ŋ.kɔ̃ˈtʁɛː.ji]
DEF-M.N*=PL child-PL 3 PL-3.RECP be.3PL meet-PST_PTCP.M.N.PL

The children met each other.

Eu djouwêya li-z en-i avé li-z eûtri.
[œd.dʑuˈwɛː.jə li.ˈzẽ.i əˈve liˈzœː.tʁi]
3 PL-play-IPF.3PL DEF-M.N=PL one=PL with DEF-M.N=OBL.PL other-OBL.PL

They were playing with each other.

Eu sse son predjà li-z en-i u-z eûtri.
[œs.se.sɔ̃m.pʁɛˈʑa liˈzẽ.i yˈzœː.tʁi]
3 PL-3.RECP be.3PL talk-PST_PTCP DEF-M.N=PL one=PL to.DEF.M.N.OBL=PL other-OBL.PL

They talked with each other.

* N = "noble" or human-associated gender
Pāṇini
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Re: each other

Post by Pāṇini » Wed 16 May 2018, 01:12

Nasiǝl tends to use the mediopassive voice for this sort of thing when it's as the object of a sentence, and taħsan (together) or istarna (within) when it would be a prepositional phrase in English.

Pepe vemiyantat.
child-PLUR.NOM meet-3PL.MED.PAST
The children met each other

Sane taħsan vaħtuer.
3PL-NOM together play-3PL.PAST
They were playing with each other.

Sane memayer istarna.
3PL-NOM speak-3PL.PAST within
They talked with each other.

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Void
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Re: each other

Post by Void » Thu 17 May 2018, 00:27

Now I'm not quite so sure how logical it is to include a reciprocal pronoun with a reciprocal verb, so I just drop it with the accusative, and decline it elsewhere, until I figure out what to do.

Symiric

Jatraširmata šormoh.
[ˈjɑtrɑʃirmɑtɑ ˈʃo̞rmo̞x]
meet-RECI-3PL.PRF child-PL
The children met each other.

Tülšürölte kohnozóbor.
[ˈtylʃyrø̞lte̞ ˈko̞xno̞zo̞ːbo̞r]
play-RECI-3PL-PAST.PROG each.other-COM
They were playing with each other.

Altsaširmata kohnozóbor.
[ˈɑltsɑʃirmɑtɑ ˈko̞xno̞zo̞ːbo̞r]
talk-RECI-3PL.PRF each.other-COM
They talked with each other.
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